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PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT December 2016



Ginkgo biloba is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, family Ginkgoaceae, genus Ginkgo and is the only extant species within this group. It is found in fossils dating back 270 million years. The genus name Ginkgo comes of the Japanese gin kyo, “silver apricot”. Specific biloba derived from the Latin bis, “two” and loba, “lobed”, referring to the shape of the leaves. Ginkgo Tree is morphologically be considered a gymnosperm.

Although Ginkgo biloba and other species of the genus were once widespread throughout the world as Ginkgo fossils are common in the rocks of the Jurassic and Cretaceous. All the other Ginkgos disappeared; today Ginkgo biloba is the only survival member of its genus and was restricted to a small area in eastern China. This remarkable tree is known as a “living fossil”, because it is the sole survivor of an ancient group of trees older than the dinosaurs.

Ginkgo Tree has long been cultivated in China; some planted trees at temples are believed to be over 1500 years old. German botanist Engelbert Kaempfer was the first European recording it from Japanese temple gardens in 1690. Because of its status in Buddhism and Confucianism, the ginkgo is also widely planted in Korea and parts of Japan

Ginkgo bilobas are dioecious, with separate sexes, some trees being female and others being male. Male trees produce small pollen cones. Female plants do not produce cones, two ovules are formed at the end of a stalk, and after pollination, one or both develop into seeds. The fertilization of Ginkgo Tree seeds occurs via motile sperm, as in cycads, ferns, mosses and algae. The seed is light yellow-brown, 1,5–2 cm long. The seeds are attractive in appearance, but contain butyric acid and smells like rancid butter when fallen. It takes 20-35 years for maidenhair trees to reach maturity and start bearing seeds.


In some areas, most intentionally planted Ginkgo biloba’s are male cultivars grafted onto plants propagated from seed, because the male trees will not produce the malodorous seeds. The disadvantage of male Ginkgo Tree is that they are highly allergenic due to pollens they produced.

Ginkgo biloba trees normally reached 20–30 m high; some specimens in China are over 50 m. The tree is usually deep rooted and resistant to wind and snow damage. Young trees are often tall and slender, and sparsely branched; the crown becomes broader as the tree ages. During autumn, the leaves turn a bright yellow, and then fall. A combination of resistance to disease, insect-resistant wood and the ability to form aerial roots and sprouts makes Ginkgo Tree long-lived.

The leaves are fan-shaped and composed of two or more distinct lobes. Two veins enter the leaf blade at the base and fork repeatedly in two; this is known as dichotomous venation. The Latin species name biloba refers to this fact. The old name "Maidenhair Tree" is because the leaves resemble some of the pinnae of the maidenhair fern, Adiantum capillus-veneris.  

There are many cultivars of Ginkgo biloba nova days. The popular cultivar "Autumn Gold" is a clone of a male plant. Female cultivars include "Liberty Splendor", "Santa Cruz", and "Golden Girl", so named because of the striking yellow color of its leaves in the fall.

Use in Landscape

Ginkgo bilobas adapt well to the urban environment, tolerating pollution and confined soil spaces. They rarely suffer disease problems, even in urban conditions and are attacked by few insects. They also withstand -30˚C degree. For this reasons, and for their general beauty, Ginkgo Trees are excellent urban and shade trees. They are widely planted along many streets. Trees were traditionally planted in temple gardens in Japan and China, but today are popular in towns worldwide and are even farmed in plantations for their medicinal properties. It is planted as an ornamental or bonsai tree, or as a shade tree. Male trees are preferable due to the unpleasant smell of the flesh-coated seeds dropped by female trees.

Extreme examples of the Ginkgo biloba’s tenacity may be seen in Hiroshima, Japan, where six trees growing within 1–2 km from the 1945 atom bomb explosion. They were among the few living things in the area to survive the blast. These trees are now continuing growing.

Medicinal Use: Ginkgo Trees has been used in Chinese traditional medicine for centuries. Today, it is also cultivated for use in western medicine and one of the best-selling herbal supplements in the United States and Europe.

Scientists have found more than 40 components in Ginkgo biloba. Only two are believed to act as medicine: flavonoids and terpenoids. Flavonoids are plant-based antioxidants. Laboratory and animal studies show that flavonoids protect the nerves, heart muscle, blood vessels, and retina from damage. Terpenoids improve blood flow by dilating blood vessels and reducing the stickiness of platelets and also act as antioxidant. In the body, harmful particles called free radicals build up as one age, and may contribute to heart disease, cancer, and Alzheimer disease. Antioxidants fight off free radicals, and stop them from damaging DNA and other cells. Ginkgo biloba has a positive effect on memory and thinking in people with Alzheimer disease, dementia and vertigo.

The nut-like gametophytes inside the seeds are eaten in Chine. Ginkgotoxin a constituent of the seeds may cause poisoning unless the seeds are thoroughly cooked.







PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT November 2016



Ceiba is the name of a genus of many species of large trees found in tropical areas, including Mexico, Central America, South America, the Caribbean, West Africa, and Southeast Asia. Some species can grow to 70 m tall or more, with a straight, largely branchless, long trunk, spreading canopy, and buttress roots. Several trees in this genus including baobab are called Kapok tree.

Ceiba speciosa (formerly Chorisia speciosa), is a species of succulent, deciduous tree native to the tropical and subtropical forests of South America. The natural habitats of the tree are Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and Brazil. It grows fast in spurts when water is abundant, and sometimes reaches more than 20 meters in height.


Silk Floss Tree’s trunk is bottle-shaped, generally bulging in its lower third, measuring up to 2 meters in girth. The trunk is also covered with thick, sharp conical prickles. In younger trees, the trunk is green due to its high chlorophyll content, which makes it capable of performing photosynthesis when leaves are absent, with age it turns to gray. The branches are also covered with prickles.

The leaves are composed of 4-7 long leaflets. The flowers are creamy-whitish in the center and pink towards the tips of their five petals. They measure 10 cm in diameter and their shape is superficially similar to hibiscus flowers. It flowers at autumn. The fruits are ovoid capsules, 20 centimeters long, which contain bean-sized black seeds surrounded by a mass of fibrous, fluffy matter reminiscent of cotton or silk. The cotton inside the capsules has been used as stuffing cushions and is employed in packaging, as wood pulp to make paper, and in ropes.

Ceiba speciosa can reach 20 meters high and make a beautiful canopy. requires well-drained soil. It blooms best when it is watered regularly most of the time, but kept a bit on the dry side in late summer. Silk floss trees will drop their leaves when the temperature falls below 6ºC, but established specimens have been known to survive freezes down to 6ºC. Protect young trees from freezes.

Use in Landscape: Silk Floss Tree is cultivated mostly for ornamental purposes. It is a great exotic looking tree for quickly creating tropical effects. It can grow 1-1.5 meter per year when young and never fails to attract comments with its spiny green trunk and beautiful flowers that cover a bare tree. Outside of private gardens around the world, it is often planted along urban streets in subtropical areas, although its prickled trunks and limbs require safety buffer zones, especially around the trunks, in order to protect people and domesticated animals from its prickles







PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT October 2016



Tradescantia pallida is a species of Commelinaceae ‘Spiderwort’ family. This family contains about 700 known species in 41 genera. Spiderwort is a genus of  New World plants, commonly known as Wandering Jew (this name also shared with related species Tradescantia fluminensis and Tradescantia zebrina). Some authorities still to refer to species as Setcreasea purpurea or Setcreasea pallida. The genus name comes from John Tradescant, gardener to the Earl of Salisbury. The species name pallida refers to the pale flowers of some species.

Purple Heart is native to eastern Mexico. It is an evergreen, perennial, groundcover plant of scrambling stature. The plant has elongated, pointed leaves and small three-petaled pale pink flowers. The leaves are about 2-3 cm wide and 8-12 cm long. The stems and upper surfaces of the leaves are violet purple. Stems will trail to 50 cm or more.
Tradescantia pallida is a tender perennial. In the garden, it is easily grown in rich, moist, well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. Best purple leaf color occurs in full sun. Plants have good drought tolerance. It can thrive in a wide range of soil conditions. It blooms constantly during warm weather, but the flowers are open only in the morning. Plants are not frost resistant, top-killed by moderate frosts, but will often sprout back from roots.

Flower stems of Purple Heart should be removed immediately after bloom. Pinch back stems as needed to maintain plant shape and to stimulate new growth. This plant is easily propagated by cuttings. Juices from the leaves and stems may cause skin redness and irritation in some people.

Use in Landscape: Tradescantia pallida has both true purple foliage and a sprawling habit that lends itself to use as a groundcover. It is also a popular, traditional house plant, excellent in containers. It is used as a bedding plant in temperate regions. When used as groundcover or edging, provides color and contrast to other plants. Downward trailing stems are ideal for hanging baskets, rock gardens, borders fronts and wall plantings.

Purple Heart also makes a good groundcover for difficult dry areas under eaves and awnings. It combines beautifully with fine-textured yellow-green asparagus fern for a low-maintenance urn or balcony planting. It pairs nicely with purple flowered plants. Pairing analogous colors (that are close together on the color) wheel gives a harmonious and subtle effect. Some good combinations include Tradescantia pallida with Ruellia brittonia, Scaevola aemula and purple-flowered lantana Lantana montevidensis.

As a houseplant, Purple Heart has been judged exceptionally effective at improving indoor air quality by filtering out volatile organic compounds, a class of common pollutants and respiratory irritants, via a process known as phytoremediation.





PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT September 2016



Cleome is a genus of 150 species of bushy annuals and evergreen shrubs from tropical and subtropical zones worldwide.

Cleome hassleriana is well known species of this family. Cleome spinosa and Cleome houtteana  are synonyms for this species. Spider Flower is belonging to Capparidaceae family. Cleome comes from the Greek “kleos”: glory, referring to the flowers stunning display. The specific epithet name “hassleriana” is in honor of Emile Hassler.


Cleome hassleriana is an annual, native to Paraguay, Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil. These colourful, sun-loving annuals have fragrant foliage and colourful, highly scented flowers in mixed shades of pinks, purples, and white. Each flower has long stamens giving it a spider-like appearance. The tall, robust plants grow 100-150 cm high and 100 cm wide. The large flowers blooming on top of the stems of these plants have an appropriate name as they appear "spider-like”. Spider Flower bloom from June to frost. Long lasting flowers are followed by thin seed pods that ripen to brown before splitting open and dispersing the seed within. Aromatic, sticky, palmate, minute teethed, green leaves with 5-7 ovate to lanceolate leaflets have sharp spines at the base of each leaf stalk.

Cleome hassleriana easily grown in average, dry to medium, well-drained soils in full sun. Tolerates light shade. Best with consistent watering during the growing season, but once established, plants will tolerate some drought. Seeds should be sown after the danger of frost or grown in containers.

There are many Cleome hybrids nowadays. Some is said perennials which is in many ways better the annual type. Cleome hasslerianaKelly Rose” is a very popular one with pink flowers. Sparkler White is dwarf form with white flowers. Cleome 'Senorita Rosalita' is a newer cultivar that has large purple flowers on top of a 100 cm tall by 70 cm wide plant, is sterile, and is propagated by vegetative cuttings.

Use in Landscape: Spider Flower colors are pink, white, and purple and bloom continually all summer.  It can be used as a temporary shrub; good for hot climates; generally withstands wind without staking. This plant is excellent in a cottage garden and makes great cut flowers.  They also make a bold statement in the perennial beds, borders or in large containers.  Effective along fences, in background  plantings and mixed with shrubs. They provide a superb background mass of colour and exotic form over an extended period in borders with other tropical-style plants such as Salvia, Dahlia and Canna.






PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT August 2016

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Philodendron is a large genus of flowering plants in the Araceae family, consisting of about 900 species. Compared to other genera of the family Araceae, philodendrons have an extremely diverse array of growth methods. The habits of growth can be epiphytic, hemiepiphytic, or rarely terrestrially. Philodendrons originate in tropical USA, the West Indies and South America, and are popular for their foliage and dramatically lobed leaves.Many are climbers, and do well as indoor plants in brightly lit positions. All Philodendron species are aroids.  An aroid is a plant that reproduces through the production of an inflorescence and  the major parts of that inflorescence are known as a spathe and spadix. The spathe is nothing more than a modified leaf whose purpose is to protect the spadix at its center. Meconostigma species are members of a group known as being a../uploads/13082016191520/Slayt2.JPGrborescent (tree-like) due to their apparent "trunk".  As a result collectors often call Meconostigma species "Tree Philodendron".

Philodendron bipinnatifidum is the most often encountered member of the "Tree Philodendrons", or technically, the Meconostigma group within the genus Philodendron. This tropical plant is native to Paraguay, Brazil, Argentina and Bolivia. The Tree Philodendron is an attractive, large evergreen shrub with leaves up to 90 cm long with many lobes. Older plants produce cup-like, petalless flowers. The spathe of Philodendron bipinnatifidum which basically green with a white interior. Although The Tree Philodendron is belong to  "Tree Philodendron" group, it is actually hemiepiphitic.  A hemiepiphyte is a plant that begins life in the ground and climbs a supporting tree.  Despite the belief Meconostigma don't climb, Philodendron bipinnatifidum do in fact climb up to 30 meters.

Philodendron bipinnatifidum one of the easiest to grow of all the species. It can also grow indoors but needed large place. They can be grown in shade and in sun, but its best to give it a humid and protected location for the best all around appearance and health. ../uploads/13082016191520/Slayt1.JPGAs a rain forest inhabitant, the plant won't tolerate more than a very light freeze. Usually even if a trunk is wiped out by a freeze, the plant comes back from the ground with multiple suckers.

Use in landscape: Philodendron bipinnatifidum It has been a mainstay in tropical landscapes and indoor plantings, for long years. The plant is quite tropical looking, relatively easy to grow and large. It can be grown in the garden in tropical and subtropical climate areas and also in warm temperate coastal areas. In the colder parts of world, it's best grown as an indoor or patio plant under high light conditions. Philodendrons also make excellent houseplants, provided that if there is enough space to accommodate their size.   The Tree Philodendron instantly adds the look of the rainforest to a garden. The plant may be planting at the base of trees, where it can climb by wrapping its rope-like aerial roots around tree trunks and branches.









Brachychiton (kurrajong, bottle tree) is a genus of 31 species of trees and large shrubs. 30 of them are native to Australia  and one to New Guinea.  The genus is belong to  Malvaceae family. The name Brachychiton is derived from the Greek brachys: short, and chiton: tunic, in referring to its loose seed coats.


They are all excellent garden trees where frosts are not severe. Although they all appreciate good drainage, they require only a minimum of water and care. They grow to 4–30 m tall, and some are dry-season deciduous. Several species are pachycaul plants with a very stout stem for their overall size, used to store water during periods of drought. All species are monoecious with separate male and female flowers on the same plant. A few Kurrajong species are popular garden trees and have been introduced to hot dry regions including the Mediterranean, South Africa and United States.

Brachychiton populneus is a small to medium sized evergreen tree which may reach 20 metres in height although it is often much smaller. It is a native to Eastern Australia. Naturally distributed from north-eastern Victoria to Townsville and from the coast through to the semi-arid inland. The specific name populneus from the Latin 'poplar-like' because the leaves resemble those of populus.

The extended trunk of Kurrajong is a water storage device for survival in a warm dry climate. The trunk is stout and grey, while the leaves are shiny green and either entire or 3-9 lobed, up to 10 cm long. Young foliage is pale green tinged with pink. The small flowers are bell-shaped, whitish in colour with the inner flower tube streaked purple-brown. The flowers are followed by large, boat-shaped seed capsules which contain many large seeds, similar to corn kernels.

../uploads/12072016150832/Slayt4.JPGBrachychiton populneus has two subspecies that differ in adult leaf shape. trilobus displays leaves with 3, sometimes 5, narrow lobes. Other subspecies populneus have reduced side lobes and appear more like those of poplars. Propagation is from seed or cutting. Care must be taken to avoid the irritating hairs surrounding the seeds. While sapling growth is often very slow, great improvements are possible through soil cultivation, watering and care. Tree is cold hardy at least to -8˚C for a short time.

Use in Landscape: Kurrajong has a compact and densely foliaged habit which makes for an attractive specimen plant in a garden or park. It has been introduced as an ornamental tree or street trees to South Africa, USA and Mediterranean countries including Turkiye.

Leaves lopped from branches are nutritious and desirable to stock, however consumption of the fruit may cause illness.







Brachychiton (kurrajong, bottle tree) is a genus of 31 species of trees and large shrubs. 30 of them are native to Australia and one to New Guinea. The genus is belong to Malvaceae family. The name Brachychiton is derived from the Greek brachys: short, and chiton: tunic, in referring to its loose seed coats.


They are all excellent garden trees where frosts are not severe, although they all appreciate good drainage; they require only a minimum of water and care. They grow to 4–30 m tall, and some are dry-season deciduous. Several species are pachycaul plants with a very stout stem for their overall size, used to store water during periods of drought. All species are monoecious with separate male and female flowers on the same plant. A few Kurrajong species are popular garden trees and have been introduced to hot dry regions including the Mediterranean, South Africa and United States.

Brachychiton acerifolius, commonly known as the Illawarra or Australion Flame Tree, is a large tree of the family Malvaceae. Native to rainforest areas from Illawarra to Cape York on Australia’s eastern coast. The specific epithet acerifolius suggests the appearance of the foliage is similar to that of the genus Acer (maples). It is known with the bright red bell-shaped flowers that often cover the whole tree when it is leafless.

Brachychiton acerifolius is tolerant of temperate climates and is now cultivated world-over for its beauty. However, the maximum height of 40 meters is reached only in the original, warmer habitat. It usually grows to be about 20 meters. It is deciduous if cannot find enough water, shedding its leaves after the dry season. The leaves are variable in shape and size, with 3 to 7 deep lobes. Although the foliage on young trees is frost-tender, mature specimens are hardy to -4˚C. The large, leathery foliage is especially exotic and even tropical in appearance so these trees can planted in tropical-looking landscapes even though they don’t require that much water.


The bright red, bell-shaped blooms are spectacular. The individual blooms are small, but grow in large flower clusters. The stems of the bloom clusters are also colored orange red, so long before the flower buds even open up, the tree is a wonder to see. The marvelous flowers occur in late spring. In areas where the winter is not particularly dry, natural rhythm may become somewhat erratic and the tree may flower only partially. Flowers are scarlet bells with 5 partially fused petals. The pod-like ) fruit (follicles) are dark brown, wide, boat-shaped and about 10 cm long. They contain masses of thin bristles that stick in the skin of humans, as well as yellow seeds.

Australion Flame Tree is an unforgettable, when seen in full bloom. It is one of the most spectacular red flowering trees in the world. These trees tolerate heat, drought, wind, and light frost. Once young trees are established they are quite drought tolerant. Like other brachychitons, even large trees transplant easily.

Use in Landscape: Brachychiton acerifolius is considered one of the most outstanding flowering trees in the world. It is an excellent choice for a tropical look garden, growing to an eventual 8-20 m tall with a spread of 6-8 meters and the ends of branches are quickly covered with large, open, pendant clusters of 2-3 cm, bright red, waxy, bell-shaped flowers. These flowers fall cleanly from the tree while still fresh, creating a carpet of red on the ground, and are followed by interesting clusters of 12 cm black seed pods.

In flower, the bright red color of Australion Flame Tree looks especially stunning in combination with the blue flowers of Jacaranda mimosifolia, which blooms at the same time of year. Trees may take a number of years before they bloom. Tolerant of most soil types and positions. Excellent container plant for indoors or patio. Often grown around swimming pools as they have a compact root system and not a lot of leaf drop.










Murraya paniculata is a tropical, evergreen plant native to southern China, Taiwan, South East Asia and Australia. Its genus name commemorates Dr. Johann Murray, an eighteenth-century Swedish botanist. Murrayas, are belong to the Rutaceae family such as choisya and citrus. Their creamy white flowers smell just like orange blossom.

Mock Orange is a small, tropical, evergreen tree or shrub usually growing 2-4 m tall, but can reach up to 7 m tall. Flowering occurs irregularly throughout the year, often in response to rain, most common from late winter through to late spring. The blossoms are replaced by small oval, reddish-orange fruits that enjoyed by birds. Flowers are terminal, borne in clusters at the tips of the branches. Each cluster containing up to eight white flowers that are 10-18 mm long, have five petals that are curved backwards.

Leaves of Murraya paniculata are glabrous and glossy, occurring in 3-9 oddly pinnate leaflets which are elliptic to rhombic.

The widely naturalised cultivar; Murraya paniculata 'Exotica', is common in cultivation in tropics and subtropics. Native Murraya paniculata is very similar to the cultivated exotic form of Murraya paniculata 'Exotica'. Exotica have larger leaflets (3-7cm) than the native one (1-4cm long).
Dwarf Mock Orange Murraya paniculata 'Min-a-min' is the other form of this species. It is suitable to pot grow.

Murraya paniculata reproduces by seed or semi hardwood cuttings. These seeds are most commonly spread by birds and other animals that eat the brightly-coloured fruit.

Mock Orange if planted in the ground, it can reach a height of 6-7 meters but can be kept a more manageable size if pruned. Plant can withstand low temperatures down to -4˚C for a short while. It can grow in full sun to partial shade and prefers moist soil with a neutral pH.

Use in Landscape: Murraya paniculata and Murraya paniculata 'Exotica' are widely cultivated as an ornamental tree and hedging plant, at warmer parts of the world. Mock Orange prefered because of their hardiness, wide range of soil tolerance, it may grow in alkaline, acidic, clayey, sandy, and loamy soils, and is suitable for larger hedges.

Murraya paniculata is used in traditional medicine as an analgesic.





PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT April 2016



Thalia dealbata is a herbaceous, rhizomatous, marsh or marginal aquatic perennial, in the family Marantaceae. It is native to swamps, ponds and other wetlands in the Southern and Central United States and Mexico. Genus name honors 16th century German physician and naturalist Johann Thal.


Powdery Alligator Flag is that features long-stalked, canna like foliage and violet blue flowers. It grows up to 180-280 cm high. The near ovals to lanceolate leaves are blue-green in color, dusted with white powder on the surface and with purple edges. The flowers of Thalia dealbata occur in mid-summer in clusters at the tip of very tall, narrow stems. Violet flowers appear in branched open panicles atop scapes typically rising well above the foliage to 200-300 cm tall. If they do make it through to ripe, the pods split open to reveal the seeds.

Powdery Alligator Flag grow in wet soils or in shallow water in full sun. They are best in organically rich loams. It is happiest submerged in water and growing in full sun. During the day the plant holds its leaves more or less horizontally but in the evening the leaves all stand to attention in an upright position.

Propagation may be done by seeds or by division of rhizomatous stems. Grow as a marginal aquatic in a planting basket of fertile, loamy, humus-rich soil in up to 15 cm of water at the edge of a sunnty pool. In cold areas it will become deciduous. Plant may also be grown in we boggy areas. Plants are considered winter hardy to -20˚C.

Use in Landscapes: Thalia dealbata has been grown as an aquatic ornamental because of the pretty violet flowers and enormous leaves. It is a vigorous tropicalesque aquatic plant. It can be planted in the pond, swamp pot or the bog garden. Although it is very hardy, lends a tropical flavor to ponds and water gardens.





PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT March 2016



Pontederia cordata, is a species, belong to Pontederiaceae family and Pontederia genus. It is a monocotyledonous aquatic plant native to the American continent. Naturaly grows from eastern Canada south to Argentina. It grows in all kind of wetlands, including pond and lake margins. Pickerel weed is a perennial although, leaves and stems die in the winter, rhizomes and roots stay alive and start new growth at spring.


Pontederia cordata can grow up to 150 cm tall. The stems are smooth, emerging above the water surface and branched, each bearing a leaf and a flower spikes. The leaves are shiny green, lance to heart (cordate) in shape, up to 25 cm long by 7 cm wide. Leaves appear one per stem each with a long petiole that clasps the stem. Veins of leaf blades all parallel, curved, and there is no netlike between them.

The stems of Pickerel weed keep the leaves and flowers above water. Each stem can produce a terminal flower spike 7-10 cm long. The plant starts blooming in June and continues until November. The numerous tubular flowers on the spike are violet-blue in color and have yellow markings. Each flower lasts only one day. Bees and other insects pollinate the flowers. The fruits of this plant are small and contain one seed each. Once the plant begins to produce seeds, the stem supporting the inflorescence bends to submerse the fruits and seeds. Seeds are dormant at the time of dispersal and will not germinate without stratification for 6-8 weeks.

Like many wetland and aquatic plants, Pontederia cordata can reproduce asexually by means of branching rhizomes, and hence can form large clonal stands. This plant spreads vegetatively from fragmented rhizomes. Plant reproduces from seeds and rhizomes.

Pickerel weed grows as an emergent plant, in flooded conditions. For this, plant is generally dependent upon aerenchyma in the stem to carry oxygen into the roots. Its metabolism, is, however, also tolerant of low soil oxygen. It is often found in areas where water levels fluctuate naturally, with spring flooding and later summer emergence. It is affected by salinity.

Use in landscape: Pontederia cordata and its colourful cultivars are some of the most popular and frequently used deep marginal plants.  They can be found growing happily submerged in 10 cm of shallow water or in deeper waters up to 30 cm.  This plant has an extremely important use in formal and wildlife ponds as it is favored by the emerging nymphs of Dragonflies and Damselflies who will use it as a ladder to climb up out of the water to dry out in the sun before emerging into winged adults.  It is also one of the best plants to be used in filtration beds as it is extremely greedy and will consume lots of nutrients and nitrates in the water.   

There are some cultivars of Pontederia: Pontederia Alba and Pink these cultivars grow to the same size as the cordata and produce pink or white flowers. Dilatata and Lanceolata cultivars are larger growing and grow much taller (up to 150-180 cm) than the wild purple flowered Pontederia cordata species.








PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT February 2016



Syzygium is a genus belongs to Myrtle (Myrtaceae) family that covers more than 1200 genus. There are about 1300 species in the Syzygium genus. Syzyygium jambos is one of the species of this genus. It is thought to be native to Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Philippines and Malaysia, and is cultivated and naturalized in many parts of tropics; India, Ceylon and tropical America. Eugenia jambos and Myrtus jambos are synonims. Indian name "Pomarrosa"s, English equivalent is “Rose Apple". The Rose Apple in no way resembles an apple, neither in the tree nor in its fruit.


Syzygium is a genus belongs to Myrtle (Myrtaceae) family that covers more than 1200 genus. There are about 1300 species in the Syzygium genus. Syzyygium jambos is one of the species of this genus. It is thought to be native to Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Philippines and Malaysia, and is cultivated and naturalized in many parts of tropics; India, Ceylon and tropical America. Eugenia jambos and Myrtus jambos are synonims. Indian name "Pomarrosa"s, English equivalent is “Rose Apple". The Rose Apple in no way resembles an apple, neither in the tree nor in its fruit.

Syzyygium jambos is either a big shrub or a small tree, reaching 8-12 m in height, and has a dense crown is generally overall width exceeding the height. The evergreen leaves are opposite, 10-20 cm long, lanceolate, tapering to a point. The young leaves are glossy red when growing, but turn dark green when mature.

The flowers of Rose Apple are in small terminal clusters, cream white or greenish white and long, numerous stamens giving them a diameter of 4–8 cm. In temperate regions the tree is summer-flowering, although in tropics flowers all year around.

Edible fruit of Syzygium jambos is shaped like some kinds of guava. Fruits are round, oval, or slightly pear-shaped, 4-5 cm long, with smooth, thin, and pale-yellowish skin. Fruits have a thin layer of pale yellowish flesh and a hollow central cavity containing 1-3 large brown seeds which loosen from the inner wall and rattle when the fruit is shaken. It tastes like a cross between apple and watermelon. The flesh is very distinctly rose scented.

Rose Apple’s fruits spoil very quickly so they should be used soon after picking.  In India, a mature tree will yield 2,5 kg of fruit each season. Rich in vitamin C, the fruit can be eaten raw or used in various regional recipes. The fruit is made into jam or jelly with lemon juice added, or more frequently preserved in combination with other fruits of more pronounced flavour. It is also made into syrup for use as a sauce or to flavour cold drinks.

Syzygium jambos trees are grown from seeds, which are polyembryonic (producing 1-3 sprouts), but the seedlings are not uniform in character nor behaviour. In some countries, vegetative propagation has been undertaken with a view to standardizing the crop. A deep, loamy soil is considered ideal for the Rose Apple but it is not necessary, for it flourishes also on sand and limestone with very little organic matter. Fruiting can be expected within 3-4 years.

Use in landscape: The Syzygium jambos flourishes in the tropical and near-tropical climates only. In temperate climate, the tree grows vigorously but will not bear fruit. So there is no way to use this tree in open ground at cold and temperate climate regions, despite to beautiful flowers and lovely fruit. But they can be grown as container plants and will easily fruit in pots. So it can be used at winter gardens.

The seeds are said to be poisonous. An alkaloid, jambosine, has been found in the bark of the tree and of the roots, so these parts of tree are also considered poisonous. The bark has been used for tanning and yields a brown dye. The heartwood is dark-red or brown, strong and has been used to make furniture etc.

Medicinal Uses: Some parts of the tree are used in regional traditional medicine. In India, the fruit is regarded as a tonic for the brain and liver. An infusion of the fruit acts as a diuretic. The leaf decoction is applied to sore eyes, also serves as a diuretic, expectorant and used treatment for rheumatism. The juice of macerated leaves is taken as a febrifuge. The tree is variously rich in tannins that are of some antimicrobial interest.





PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT January 2016


Oxalis triangularis is belong to Oxalidaceae family and oxalis genus. Species name is Oxalis triangularis subsp. papilionaceae and cultivar name is atropurpurea. Also Oxalis papilionaceae and Oxalis regnellii are used as synonims. Wood    Sorrel is native to South America; Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Peru. It grows naturally amongst rocks near streams.

Oxalis triangularis atropurpurea is an edible, perennial, acaulescent plant, arising from rhizomes, growing to 20 cm tall. The purple leaves, up to 20 cm long, have triangular leaflets that close at night.

Flowers are hermaphrodite pollinated by insects. Sepal apices with a pair of orange tubercles. Petals 15–22 mm, white to pinkish or pale purple. It flowers from April to May occasionally to September. Fruits (capsules) of Wood    Sorrel are  ovoid in shape, 12–18 mm long. Rhizomes are short, branching up to 5 cm long and 15 mm wide. Old ones contain many bulblets at the base.

Oxalis triangularis atropurpurea is grown from seeds or dividing rhizomes or bulbs (including offsets). Division of the bulbils preferred. Like other bulbs, the oxalis go through dormancy periods on a regular basis; at the end of such period, the bulbs can be unearthed, side bulbs cut and replanted in appropriate soil, where they will grow into new plants.

Wood    Sorrel grows in well-drained soil. Suitable both for acid, neutral and basic soils. It adapts in both dry and moist soil. Pot cultivated plants need average potting soil with good drainage preferably in light shade. They require bright or direct sunlight supplemented with a cool indoor temperature of about 15 ºC. They can tolerate higher indoor temperatures but will go into dormancy if temperatures go above 30 ºC for prolonged periods of time. During the active growing season, water  should regularly be given but allow the surface soil to dry out between waterings.

Pruning of the leaves should be done in early summer or during the dormancy period. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure. Fungal leaf spots, powdery mildew, rust, and seed smut are the most common problems, but also watch for spider mites and leaf miners.

Use in Landscape: Wood    Sorrel, is typically grown as a houseplant but can be grown outside if the temperature will not go under -10 ºC. preferably in light shade.

Edible Uses: Leaves of Oxalis triangularis atropurpurea have a pleasant acid flavour and may be eaten raw or cooked. They are a pleasant and decorative addition to the salad bowl. The root is juicy with a pleasant sweet mild flavour and can be eaten raw or cooked. The leaves contain oxalic acid, which gives them their sharp flavour, should not be eaten in large amounts since oxalic acid can bind up the body's supply of calcium leading to nutritional deficiency. The quantity of oxalic acid will be reduced if the leaves are cooked. People with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones or hyperacidity should take especial caution if including this plant in their diet since it can aggravate their condition.