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PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT December 2012

The genus Zantedeschia is restricted to the African continent consist of seven species. Zantedeschia fall into two main types: hardier outdoor forms, often called Arum lilies, with striking white flowers; and the more tender forms, typically with white-spotted leaves and pretty flowers in yellow, orange, pink or dark purple. These are often called Calla lilies.

Zantedeschia aethiopica is native to Southern Africa where it grows in marshy places. It is evergreen or deciduous depending on the habitat and rainfall regime. In the Western Cape it is dormant in summer and in the summer rainfall areas it is dormant in winter. It will remain evergreen in both areas if growing in marshy conditions which remain wet all year around.

Zantedeschia is named after Italian physician and botanist Professor Giovanni Zantedeschi. The species epithet ''aethiopicarefers to the fact that it is native to Africa. Although commonly known as the arum lily or calla lily, it is not a lily but an aroid.

The Arum Lily is well known for its striking appearance when in flower, with a brilliant white floral bract wrapping around a yellow finger-like projection in the centre. The flowering parts arise from a ring of glossy green leaves. The fruits are green berries turn orange at the base when ripe. The flowers of Zantedeschia aethiopica are faintly scented and this attracts various crawling insects and bees which help for pollinating the flowers.

Arum Lily is very popular as cut flowers and as an ornamental. It is used as a symbol of purity in bridal and funeral flower arrangements. The leaves and rhizomes of Arum Lily are traditionally used in dressings and oral preparations for a variety of complaints in southern Africa. The rhizomes are edible, although the plant is reportedly toxic. Traditionally the plant is boiled and eaten. Raw plant material causes swelling of the throat because of microscopic, sharp calcium oxalate crystals. The leaves are also traditionally used as a poultice and a treatment for headaches. Scientists have shown that Zantedeschia aethiopica may be useful in artificial wetland systems to clean waste water and prevent algal growth.

Arum Lily grows best in moist soil or shallow water. Planting under shade is preferable if there is no boggy position for this plant, but this will reduce the number of flowers. Fertile soil is required. In optimum conditions, a good display of flowers may be enjoyed in the spring and summer.

Zantedeschia aethiopica grows to 90 cm but may get taller in the shade. It has dark green leaves with an arrow head shape. The size varies according to the amount of shade. The flowers appear in a main flush from February to June, although there may be the odd flower at other times of the year. Arum Lily forms large colonies in marshy areas ranging from the coast to an altitude of 2250m. Thus one will find them contending with humid, salt laden air at the coast and freezing, misty mountain grasslands at high altitudes. The leaves of the arum are very interesting in that they contain water stomata which can discharge excess water, by a process known as "guttation". This prevents water-logging and enables arum lilies to grow in wet conditions.

Zantedeschia aethiopica is easily cultivated by seed or division. Seed should be sown in spring. The fleshy rootstock can be divided when the plant is dormant, it should be re-planted not less then 3 cm deep. It may also be propagated by division where the plant is not dormant.

Arum Lily may be used as a marginal plant along streams, or on the edge of a pond. Plant in partial shade if there is no permanent water. It may be combined with Yellow Iris (Iris pseudocorus), Golden Iris (Iris xantospuria) or Black Iris (Iris lousianaBlack gammock’) in marshy areas. It can be planted as a foliage plant in deep shade under trees but will not flower well in this position. Nowadays many cultivars of Zantedeschia are available and can be used as pot plants or at garden design.

PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT November 2012

Philodendron is a large genus of flowering plants in the Araceae family, consisting of about 900 species. Compared to other genera of the family Araceae, philodendrons have an extremely diverse array of growth methods. The habits of growth can be epiphytic, hemiepiphytic, or rarely terrestrially. Philodendrons originate in tropical USA, the West Indies and South America, and are popular for their foliage and dramatically lobed leaves. Many are climbers, and do well as indoor plants in brightly lit positions.

Philodendron selloum has been a mainstay in tropical landscapes and indoor plantings, for long years. Actually Philodendron selloum is a commonly used name for Philodendron bipinnatifidum. The plant is quite tropical looking, relatively easy to grow and large. In fact, it grows very large at maturity. For indoor decor and interiorscaping, a smaller plant with somewhat the same look would be ideal. Such a plant became available when Philodendron xanadu came into the market. Xanadu combines many of the good points of its relatives with some special qualities of its own. The spathe of Philodendron xanadu is dark violet-purple bordering on red and is different from the spathe of Philodendron bipinnatifidum which basically green with a white interior (as seen at the photo).

Xanadu is a member of a group of Philodendron plants known as the Meconostigma group. These plants are also known as the "Tree Philodendrons" because they develop a heavy stem that can be thought of as a trunk, unlike other vining Philodendron species.

Philodendron xanadu discovered in Western Australia in 1983 as a chance seedling.  It was subsequently patented as Philodendron “Winterbourn”, then renamed Xanadu by House Plants of Australia and released as their plant of the year in 1988. This plant, which was granted United States Plant Patent in 1989. Now that the patent has expired, plant is available for propagation to anyone who wishes to without legal restraint. Now it is known that, Xanadu is a separete species rather than a hybrid as previously believed. Philodendron xanadu is one of the exclusively cultured species in the labs as a tissue cultured (cloned) specimen. Every year more than two million plants are sold worldwide.

Philodendron xanadu is an evergreen low shrub with a compact, tidy growth habit and attractive lobed leaves. It rarely exceeds 90x90cm. Decorative small lobed leaves compact growth low maintenance and pest free, doesn't produce aerial roots as some other represantative of the family. Xanadu likes full sun to semi shade, plenty of water in spring and summer, annual fertilising with slow release fertiliser to keep it green.

Use in landscape: Philodendron xanadu can be grown in the garden in tropical and subtropical climate areas and also in warm temperate coastal areas. In the colder parts of world it's best grown as an indoor or patio plant under high light conditions planted in drifts for a massed display good pot specimen in semi shaded conditions great for tropical-look gardens but blends with many different plants great tidy plant around pools.

PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT October 2012

Strelitzia reginae “Gold” is a rare yellow form of the well-known crane flower, Strelitzia reginae.

-Yellow-flowering strelitzias have been known for a number of years. These plants spontaneously have cropped up in France, California, Australia, Japan and in South Africa at a few locations, but always as isolated specimens. The seeds from these yellow forms will not breed true as they will most likely have been pollinated by an orange plant. To get yellow progeny, two yellow plants must be crossed. At Kirstenbosch in the 1970's, there were seven yellow plants in the nursery. John Winter, who was curator during this period, began a project to increase the stock. It took almost twenty years of careful selection and hand-pollination, and in 1994 the original stock had been built up enough to enable them to introduce the yellow strelitzia to horticulture. It was released and traded under the name “Kirstenbosch Gold” until 1996. Palmiye Merkezi bought some seeds as soon as the seeds were available in market. First Golden Strelitzia flower was obtain at 1999 at Palmiye Merkezi in Türkiye. NBI was granted permission to re-name it in honour of Nelson Mandela as “Mandela’s Gold” at 1998.

Golden Bird of Paradise is a stemless, evergreen clump-forming perennial. Greyish green, banana-like leaves grow to a height of about 150cm. Flowering season starts at the end of autumn and continue during winter and spring. Beatiful, large, bird-like flowers are held above the foliage on the tips of long, robust stalks. Plant divide to two after each flowering. In years it makes a very large clan.

The hard, beak-like sheath from which the flower emerges, is called the spathe. This is held at right angles to the stem, and has the appearance of a bird's head. Each spathe contains 4 to 6 flowers, and these emerge one at a time from the spathe. Each flower consists of 3 clear yellow sepals and 3 petals. The yellow sepals give the appearance of a crest on the bird's' head. Two of the royal blue petals are joined together around the stamens and the style to form an arrow-like structure. The third blue petal is shorter than others and stays on top of them (please look at photo “çiçek yapısı”).

Strelitzia reginae “Gold” is an easy plant to grow and will thrive in most soils. Full sun, rich and well-drained loam soil with a pH of approximately 7,5, regular deep watering in summer and liberal applications of fertilizer in growing season, necessary to make the ideal condition. Plants will respond well to generous applications of manure and compost or additional fertilizer watered in about once a month during summer. A fertilizer with the proportions 9-3-15 encourages flowering. Strelitzias will also do well in semi-shade, in sunny countries but they need as much sun as they can get if they are to flower well.

Golden Bird of Paradise once established, they can survive with very little water, and they are tolerant of wind and coastal conditions. It is sensitive to freze as the other strelitzias and needs a sheltered position against northern winds at mediterranean region in areas that experience frost.  

Use in Landscape: Strelitzia reginae “Gold” is a striking feature plant, a decorative garden subject and adds a tropical feel to courtyards and swimming pool areas. They look marveleous in separate groups with orange color strelitzias at the grass areas. May be use as a borderline plant or as first row in front of the Giant Strelitzias (Strelitzia nicolai). It is suitable for cultivation in large terracote pots and containers. In this case, for better flowering performance it should be fed with a dilute liquid fertilizer at least every other week, particularly at the beginning of the growing season. In cold climates it can be grown as a winter garden plant or in nurseries. It is also make an excellent cutflower.

Propagation of Golden Bird Of Paradise is by seed or division. The plants are slow-growing and large clumps that are split or moved will take at least two years to re-establish themselves and flower again. To get a mature flowering plant from seed, under ideal conditions it takes about 3 years. But for unexperienced growers, this time is not less then 5-6 years. Before sowing, the bright orange aril should be remowed. Seedlings should be a good size before being transplanted (two to three leaves) into a well-drained potting medium. Regular repotting allows the young plant to develop rapidly. Restricting the root development retards growth.

PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT September 2012

Strelitziaceae Family is consist of 5 species, which naturally grown in South Africa. These species are, St.Regina, St.regina juncea, St.alba, St.caudata and St.nicolai.  

Natal Wild Banana grows mostly in coastal dune vegetation and in evergreen forests near the coast. It grows in the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal at South Africa, and up into Mozambique towards Zimbabwe.

The name Strelitzia was given to honour Queen Charlotte England (she was from the family of Mecklenburg-Strelitz). Nicolai comes from, Grand duke Nikolay Nikolayeviç, son of Czar Nicholas I of Russia.

Strelitzia nicolai grows up to 10m high and 4m wide. It is an evergreen tree with multi-stems that form dense clumps. Although not related to the true bananas or the wild banana (Ensete ventricosum), the leaves and growth habit of Natal Wild Banana are somewhat similar and probably account for the common name. The stem is woody and smooth in texture. It is light to dark grey in colour and marked with old leaf scars. Attached to the stem by long, thick leaf stalks are the enormous, opposite leaves that are shiny and grey-green in colour. Leaf blades can reach up to 2m, these tear in the wind and come to resemble giant feathers.

The flower of Strelitzia nicolai is a typical crane-flower inflorescence, up to 50mm long. The flowers of this tree have white sepals with blue petals and consist of 5 purplish blue, boat-shape sheaths. The whole flower resembles the head of the bird, with a white crest and purple beak. The tree flowers throughout the year with a peak in spring-summer. The inflorescence have more than one flower. The seeds are black in colour, with a tuft of a bright orange woolly aril on the lobe. They are produced mostly in autumn and some in spring.

Natal Wild Banana’s leaf stalks are dried and used to make a rope for building huts. The flowers provides nectar that attracts sunbirds. Monkeys feed on the soft part of the flowers as well as on the orange aril of the seeds.

Propagation is done from seeds, also it is possible to prapagate this tree from root suckers. To grow from seed, orange arils should be removed before sowing. Seeds should be covered with 5-10mm layer of compost. Seedlings should be kept in a shady spot for the first season. Once planted out this plant is fast growing. It will grow in semi-shade or full sun and requires a moderate amount of water.

Strelitzia nicolai is drought tolerant, but it does not tolerate frost more than -40C, so should be planted in a protected spot in temperate climates. It withstands salty coastal winds, making it a good feature plant or screen for coastal gardens.

Use in Landscape: Natal Wild Banana is an eye catching evergreen, effective throughout the year and is useful for creating a lush, tropical effect. It can be used to softened hard landscaping, buildings and pools. It also looks good contrasted with evergreen lawns and shrubs. As the root system is a bit aggressive, it should not to be planted too close to paths and structures. Strelitzia nicolai can be used as an eye catching pot plant in cool places or in small gardens, also it is a good choise for winter gardens.

PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT August 2012

Clivias are endemic to southern Africa. Bush Lily grows in dappled shade, often in large colonies. The soil is well drained and humus rich.

Clivia comes from, Lady Charlotte Clive who first cultivated and flowered the specimen in England, miniata comes from minius (colour of lead tetroxide) referring to the flowers.

Cliviamania began in the 1800's when specimens were arrived to England from Kwazulu-Natal. In Victorian times this beautiful plant was very popular for indoor use in England and Europe.

Part of the fascination has been with the breeding of Clivia, both between the four species (C. nobilis, C. gardenii, C. caulescens, C. miniata) and between forms and colours within the species. Breeders select for specific traits in each generation which produces pronounced qualities such as huge, broad petalled flowers, red, yellow or apricot coloration, broad leaves, fan shaped leaf arrangement, variegation, dwarfism and many others.

Clivia miniata is a clump forming perennial with dark green, strap shaped leaves which arise from a fleshy underground stem. The leaves can reach 45 cm height and 8 cm wide. The flowering heads of brilliant orange (rarely yellow), trumpet shaped,  flowers appear mainly in spring April to May but also sporadically at other times of the year. The deep green shiny leaves make a very nice contrast to the masses of orange flowers.

Bush Lily can be propagated by seed or by removing suckers. The fruits are bright orange when ripe (or golden in the case of the yellow flowered plants).

Clivia miniata is easily cultivated and very rewarding. It should be planted in dappled shade, (they are sensitive to sunlight and will burn easily) in well composted soil. This will also help with soil water retention during dry periods. The plants should be watered regularly during the summer months which is their growing season. Watering can be reduced during winter and the plants will tolerate fairly long dry periods.

Bush Lily is frost tender and may be damaged if in a position that is exposed, to cold winds especially. It takes a long time for the damage to grow out if this happens, so it is best to select a sheltered site. The roots are reportedly extremely toxic but are used medicinally for various purposes.

Use in landscape: Clivia miniata should use in shade and protected areas in mild climates. Bush Lilies are spectacular container subjects. They should be grown in a well drained potting medium which has plenty of compost added.


Cotyledon is belong to family of Crassulaceae. Cotyledon genus of 10 species of compact, often clump-forming, perennial succulents and evergren subshrubs from desert or shaded areas in Southern Africa, East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The stalked, fleshy leaves are borne in opposite pairs. Tubular to bell-shaped, generally pendent, red, yellow or orange flowers are borne in crowded, terminal panicles mostly in late summer and autumn. The genus name Cotyledon comes from the Greek word kotyledon that means cup-shaped, this refers to the leaves of some species.


Cotyledon orbiculata is a succulent plant has thick leaves which may vary from green to grey, often with a red line around the margin. Cotyledon orbiculata is naturally found in Angola, Namibia and South Africa. Plant may reach up to 100 cm height and and 50 cm wide. The species name orbiculata comes from the Latin word meaning round circle.

PIG'S EAR Flowering time is mostly late summer to autumn. The colourful, hanging, tubular, bell-shaped flowers 1,5-2cm long are carried in clusters on the ends of an elongated flower stalk up to 70 cm. They are mostly orange-red, but yellow flowering forms are also occasionally found. Mild frost will damage the flowers, but the plant itself will tolerate moderate frosts.

The brightly coloured flowers, attract bees and birds. The silver-grey leaves of some forms owe much of their attractive colouring to a powdery white coating which may assist in reflecting much of the sun's heat to prevent excessive water loss from the thick succulent leaves.

Cotyledon orbiculata is a well-known medicinal plant. The fleshy part of the leaf is applied by many South Africans to soften and remove hard corns and warts. The heated leaf is used as a poultice for boils and other accessible inflammations. Single leaf is eaten as a vermifuge and that the warmed juice can be used as drops for toothache or earache.

Use in Landscape: PIG'S EAR is an ideal plant for the rockery, but also grows well as a pot plant placed on a veranda. It will also add texture and form to the well-drained flower border. When planted as a pot plant, good drainage is important. It is often found in full sun, but also grows well in semi-shade under trees. This is an ideal plant for the water-wise gardener.

Cotyledon orbiculata may be grown from seed, taking tip cuttings is the fastest method of increasing plant numbers; they must be kept fairly dry to prevent rotting. This plant has few pests, but it may be attacked by snails in the garden.


Maclura is a genus belong to Moraceae family, consist of 15 species. They are usually thorny, deciduous or evergreen, dioecious trees, shrubs or climbers, the branches often reduced to spins. Naturally found in East Asia to Australia, and from South Central USA to South America.


Naturally found in South Central USA. Maclura pomifera is one of the most widely planted trees in North America, especially on the plains, yet it has no commercial value as timber, lumber or even pulpwood. Instead, it was used to make high, thick, thorny, termite and rot resistant hedgerows. It did such an admirable job as hedging material.

Botanically, the Maclura pomifera, was named for a Scottish-born semi-American geologist named William Maclure, pomifera means bearing apples.

Bois d'arc  and Bow Wood are common names for Osage Orange that hint back to the native American Indian's use of the wood to make bows. (The Osage Nation is a Native American Siouan-speaking tribe in the United States that originated in the Ohio River valley in present-day Kentucky. After years of war with invading Iroquois, the Osage migrated west of the Mississippi River to their historic lands in present-day Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma by the mid-17th century).

Maclura pomifera rounded, deciduous tree, thorny when young, becoming less so with age, with ovate, pointed, dark green leaves, to 10 cm long, turning yellow in autumn. Tiny cup shaped, yellow-green flowers (the females in short racemes, males in dence, spherical clusters) are born in late spring or early summer, followed on female trees by large, wrinkled, yellow-green fruit, to 12 cm across.

Osage Orange is a very frost resistant tree, can reach up to 15 metres high and 12 meters wide. The trees will be either male or female, and only the females will produce hedge balls. The trees become sexually mature by age 10 and there is no easy way to determine the gender prior to then. The trees can grow quickly in a good location with ideal growing conditions.

Use in landscape: They make a decent shade tree within ten years. Maclura pomifera often used to make a natural and cheap hedgerow.  To make a hedgerow, the trees should be planted no more than 150 cm apart and plan to thin them as they get bigger. Osage Orange fruit is known alternately as "Hedge Apple" and is inedible to almost every animal except squirrels. The fruit is often used as a natural insect repellent, especially for cockroaches and crickets, as well as a dye.

Maclura pomifera has been successfully used in strip mine reclamation. Its ease of planting, tolerance of alkaline soil, and resistance to drought are desirable qualities. These qualities plus quick growth, long life, and resistance to injury by ice, wind, insects, and diseases make Maclura pomifera a valued landscape plant.



Portulacaria afra or Porkbush belongs to a large and widespread family Portulacaceae which includes the popular Portulaca. Probably it is the only member of the genus, but have some varieties. The name Portulacaria is composed of Portulaca and aria suggesting a similarity to the genus Portulaca. The word afra is indicate plant occurs in Africa.

Portulacaria afra is a succulent shrub, which naturally grown in semi arid, rocky lowlands in Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique. The Porkbush is a popular succulent garden plant in use around the warm climates of world and is often used for bonsai.

Portulacaria afra is an attractive, evergreen succulent shrub or small tree that can reach up to 500 cm in height in natural sides. It is hardly reach to 200 cm. in garden situation. It has small round succulent leaves and red stems. Small star-shaped pink flowers are borne en masse from late winter to spring although flowering in pot cultivation is often erratic. The Porkbush is easily propagated from cuttings, the seed is not often available.

In the Addo National Park (South Africa) elephants eat the Porkbush from the top downwards allowing the plant to spread itself vegetatively by spreading horizontal branches at ground level. The leaves of the porkbush can be eaten and have a sour or tart flavour. It is preffered meal for many animals also by tortoises.

Traditional uses of Portulacaria afra also include the increasing of breast milk by lactating mothers. The leaves are used to quench thirst, sucking a leaf is used to treat exhaustion, dehydration and heat stroke. Crushed leaves can be rubbed on blisters and corns on the feet to provide relief. The leaves are chewed as a treatment for sore throat and mouth infections while the astringent juice is used for soothing ailments of the skin such as pimples, rashes and insect stings. The juice is also used as an antiseptic and as a treatment for sunburn. The porkbush has also been indicated as a soil binder for preventing soil erosion.

Use in landscape: Porkbush can be used as a screen or even a clipped hedge. It also makes a handsome and hardy Bonsai. It is used in full sun or semi-shade in dry areas or even in well-watered flowerbeds at warm climates. It can tolerate a moderate degree of frost, when mature. If there is danger of frost, should be kept as pot plant in nursery.

It has been shown to be effective in carbon sequestration (binding atmospheric carbon which is responsible for climate change), in semi-arid landscapes and thicket vegetation it is also being used for restoration purposes.

Portulacaria afra Various different forms are found in cultivation, a prostrate low growing ground cover, 'Prostrata'; a shrubby form with small round leaves which turn an attractive yellow in full sun, 'Aurea' and 'Foliis variegatus' a slow growing variegated form which is well suited to pot culture. Another variegated form known as 'Medio-picta' has green leaves with whitish markings spreading from the centre. A large-leaved form known as ' Limpopo ' has much larger, more ovate leaves that can measure up to 20 - 30mm long and 15 - 20mm wide.

PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT April 2012

The Syagrus genus occurs naturally in South America and can be found from the north of Venezuela and Colombia all the way down to the south of Argentina and Brazil.  It comprises 32 varieties of palms with featherlike leaves.  Some have one trunk, some several and there are even trunkless varieties.  The name Syagrus comes from the old Latin for ‘palm’.


(Cocos plumosa – Arecastrum romanzoffianum)

Palms are known as the ‘queens’ of the plant world and Syagrus romanzoffianum is the queen of them all.  This Queen Palm can be found in the forests of Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Bolivia and northern Argentina.  It has a straight, grey trunk 20–40cm wide rising to a height of 15 metres, and it has been known to reach 20 metres. It has pinnate leaves and produces cream flowers followed by clusters of fruit, 20–25mm long, which are initially green then turn orange as they ripen.  These contain prodigious amounts of seed.  The tree is hermaphroditic and only one tree is needed to produce seed.  It gets the name ‘romanzoffianum’ from Nicholas Romanzoff, a Russian prince who financed the plant hunting expedition which led to its discovery.

Syagrus romanzoffianum can stand hot sun and will also grow in shade.  If very well fertilised, its trunk will widen and its leaves also become broader and greener.  It grows well inside high buildings in a position where it gets much light.  In general it prefers a slightly acid soil, but it will eventually acclimatise in other soils.  In an alkaline environment, due to lack of manganese, its leaves may seem looser and may even look wavey.

The Queen Palm is the palm most commonly planted in Florida.  For the past 20 years it has been imported into Turkey where it was first reared from seed at the Palm Centre.  At the Centre in 2009 we have obtained seeds from 15-year-old 6–7 metres in height Syagrus romanzoffianum palms. Despite the fact that the Queen Palm has tropical origins it can withstand cold better than you might think. At the Palm Centre it has been exposed to cold down to -60C and, apart from a slight yellowing on the edges of leaves, it was not damaged in any other way.

In landscaping Syagrus romanzoffianum can be used as a single, architectural plant which gives an instant tropical flavour or it can be used in groups, and works when planted around or between high buildings, in parks and gardens, on broad streets, by the side of a swimming pool or as edging along paths.

Large Queen Palms give welcome shade and always add an exotic note wherever they are planted.  From an architect’s point of view they are ideal for delineating any open space and, as previously stated, they work especially well when planted between large buildings.

PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT March 2012

Kalanchoe is a genus that contain about 130 species of succulents and has a very wide distribution area: Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Tropical Africa to South Africa, Madagascar, India, S. China, Phillipines, Malaysia, Brazil and Australia. Kalanchoe is belong to Crassulaceae family. The family name Crassulaceae means thick fleshy leaves which is characteristic of the plants in the family.

A number of species can take temperature close to freezing for short times, but none will really tolerate any frost. The species that have pubescent  leaves can generally tolerate intense heat without trouble particularly if kept in light shade. The species with smooth leaves are a little less tolerant, but fare generally better than most other crassulaceae in such hot conditions.

Kalanchoe thyrsiflora - Paddle Plant, Flapjack

The species name thyrsiflora refers to the inflorescence, which is a thryse or many-flowered kind of inflorescence. Contrarily to other members of the family that have most flower parts in multiple of 5, Kalanchoe flowers have 4 connected petals forming a tube, 4 sepals, 4 carpels, and 8 stamens.

Flapjack forms a basal rosette of large, rounded, fleshy, stalkless leaves, which are grayish-green with red margins, covered with a white powdery bloom. Plants reach about 60cm, erect, upward facing, tightly arranged leaves are without petioles.

Kalanchoe thyrsiflora is a monocarpic plant producing a stalk about 1m tall, dying back after flowering. The inflorescence is terminal and erect with densely clustered panicles of greenish waxy flowers with yellow recurved lobes. Small tubular flowers approximately 15mm long. Flowering from autumn to spring. On the inflorescence the lower leaves are rounded and become smaller as they ascend along the flowering stem. The flowering may persist for a long time on the plant until the whole plant eventually dies. When given enough sunlight, the large and dramatic sage-green leaves develop a bright red or pink band that highlights the edges of the smooth, fleshy paddles.

Flapjack being a succulent perennial, it does not require much attention in sunny dry gardens. Plants take about 3-4 years to mature, but flowers may appear from the second year and remain for another year before seeds are dispersed.

In its natural habitat, plants are sometimes exposed to harsh temperatures and have adapted to survive over many years. Besides succulence, the plants always erectly point their leaves upward toward the sun in order to minimise the surface area that is exposed to the sun. This helps the plant to conserve moisture even more. The white floury coating on the leaves and inflorescence helps to reflect the sun away thus keeping the plant cool. Ants, bees and other flying insects, which visit the flower at midday, are responsible for pollinating Kalenchoe. The fertilised flowers may persist on the plants for a long time and the very small seeds are effectively dispersed by the wind.

It is possible to grow Kalanchoe thyrsiflora vegetatively as well as sexually. For quick results leaf cuttings can be made from mature plants. When making cuttings it is important to ensure that a small piece of stem is attached to the leaf. Make cuttings during the warmer months. Place in coarse river sand in an area with air movement and shade of about 40%. Alternatively the seeds which are very fine can be sown on a sandy medium then lightly covered.

Horticulturally Flapjacks are very popular in rock gardens, on rocky embankments, and as perennial container plants. They make beautiful displays when planted in mass and their red leaf margins are particularly attractive. Remember that these plants are from rocky areas and prefer a similar garden habitat with plenty of direct sunlight in order to thrive. Flapjack makes for a vivid potted plant or summer succulent annual in a landscape.

Kalanchoe thyrsiflora is tolerant of moist but well-drained soils; and, like its succulent relatives, is very drought resistant once established. It grows best in full sun to partial shade. In shade, leaves will be greener.

PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT February 2012

There are more than 50 Bulbine species and several are used medicinally by traditional healers in South Africa.

Bulbine frutescens is belong to Asphodelaceae family. Although Bulbine name comes from the Latin word bulbus meaning an onion or bulb, plants do not have a bulbous base.

Snake flower is native to South Africa, occurs widespread throughout parts of Northern Cape, Western and Eastern Cape; however, it reaches its peak in the succulent-rich, dry valleys of Eastern Cape.

Bulbine frutescens is a fast growing, branched, succulent, perennial with fleshy, linear green leaves in opposite rows and clasping the stems at the base. It reaches 25-30cm height.  It forms spreading clumps with greyish stems often bearing adventitious roots. The small 6-petaled star shaped flowers are carried on an upright, spreading raceme during spring (or occasionally at other times). The petals are either yellow or sometimes orange, which combines attractively with the fluffy yellow stamens to give a bi-coloured look. The fruit is a small, rounded capsule and contains black seeds which are dispersed by wind.

Snake flower is a succulent perennial, multiplies rapidly. Prune it when untidy. For best results it should be planted in well-drained soil preferably enriched with compost. The dead flower heads should be removed to encourage further flowering. These plants prefer full sun, but they will also grow in semi-shade for part of the day. Although it will grow indoors, it requires maximum light. The brightly coloured flowers, attract bees.

Propagation of Bulbine frutescens is from seed, cuttings or either division of clumps, and should be done in spring.

Use in Landscape: Snake flower is often used in landscaping where a drought-resistant, tough groundcover is required or in rock gardens. It is a an easy to grow, waterwise, floriferous groundcover, which with the minimum of care, will look good all year round. It combines beautifully with blue dwarf agapanthus, flowering at the same time.

Bulbine frutescens is also cultivated for its medicinal properties. It also has its value in the home garden. The fresh leaf produces a jelly-like juice that is wonderful for burns, rashes, blisters, insect bites, cracked lips, acne, cold sores, mouth ulcers and areas of cracked skin. This plant is ideal to grow and is a useful first-aid remedy for childrens' daily knocks and scrapes.

PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT January 2012

The genus Aptenia belongs to the Mesembryanthemaceae family. The family name is derived from the Greek word, mesembria, meaning midday, and anthemom, meaning flower, referring to the flowers that open in the noon. The genus name, Aptenia, is derived from the Greek word, apten, meaning wingless, and refers to the wingless seed. The species name, cordifolia is derived from the in Latin words, cordi, meaning heart, and folium, meaning leaf. This genus is endemic to South Africa and consists of four species.

Aptenia cordifolia occurs naturally in the summer rainfall regions of South Africa at an altitude of 20–800 m. It grows along the coastal regions of the Eastern Cape and is also found in KwaZulu-Natal.

Baby Sun Rose is an evergreen and fast-growing succulent, perennial. The roots are fleshy and thick. The succulent stems are four-angled or rounded, 600 mm long, and grow flat on the ground. The green leaves are fleshy, heart to oval shaped, 50 x 25 mm long, and are widely spaced in pairs or singularly arranged. Water cells are scattered on the leaf and the stems surface and shine in the sunlight.

Flowers of Aptenia cordifolia are purple to red, shiny, small, 15 mm wide and borne singly or in clusters on short flower stalks. The flowers are self-fertilized and flowering occurs from spring to autumn. Flowers open during the bright hours of the day. The bright pinkish red flowers, attract butterflies, bees and other insects.

Baby Sun Rose is easily grown from seed and cuttings. Sow seed in summer. The plant can be divided and runners can be planted directly into the ground. Before planting, prepare the garden bed by digging over the soil; add compost and a slow-release fertilizer. The plant can become weedy. Trim or prune the plant to maintain its shape.

Aptenia cordifolia is a drought-resistant plant, tolerates high rainfall and irregular watering. Also it is a very useful plant for retarding the fire. There is also a variegated variety of this plant which is used in landscaped.

Use in Landscape: The glossy succulent leaves and bright magenta pink flowers are distinctive characteristics of Baby Sun Rose. a well-known groundcover. It is an ideal plant for coastal gardens as it tolerates sea spray and grows in sandy soil. It can be used in rockeries or outcrops. Aptenia cordifolia is an useful plant for, terraced slopes and along roadside embankments. It requires full sun or semi-shade; it can be planted underneath trees.