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PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT December 2015



Zamioculcas is a genus of flowering plant in the family Araceae (arum or aroid) containing the single species Zamioculcas zamiifolia.

Araceae: There are 106 genera and about 3800 species of plants in Araceae family. All are monocots that have flowers borne in a type of inflorescence called a spadix that is sometimes partially enclosed in a spathe or leaf-like hood. If pollinated by an insect, brown or white berries will develop on the spadix. The berries are ellipsoid in shape and will produce seeds. Some of the genera have many species, for example Philodendron contains 66 species. Araceae are often rhizomatous or tuberous, some contain calcium oxalate crystals and clear or milky sap, and can be toxic when ingested. All arums should be considered toxic and handled with care. Popular aroids include species of Aglaonema (Chinese-evergreen), Caladium, Epipremnum (pothos), Spathiphyllum (peace lily), Syngonium (arrowhead vine)  and Zantedeschia (calla-lily).

Zamioculcas zamiifolia is a tropical perennial plant, native to the dry grasslands and shady areas of lowland forests in eastern Africa (from Kenya south to northeastern South Africa). The genus name, ‘Zamioculcas’ suggests its resemblance to the cardboard cycad ‘Zamia furfuracea’, The botanical name derives from on the one hand the superficial similarity of its foliage to that of the cycad genus Zamia and on the other hand its kinship to the genus Colocasia under the alternative form 'Culcas'. This species was described to science in 1905.  Dutch nurseries started wide-scale commercial propagation of the plant after 1996.

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ZZ Plant is a herbaceous plant, growing to 60–70 cm tall, from a stout underground, succulent rhizome. It is normally evergreen, but becomes deciduous during drought. It can survive drought with help of the large potato like rhizome that stores water until rainfall resumes.

The pinnate leaves of Zamioculcas zamiifolia are, 40–60 cm long, with 8-14 pairs of leaflets are almost oval shaped and a bit broader toward the sharp-pointed tip line up in opposite formation along each stem. Leaflets are 5–12 cm long, smooth, shiny, and dark green. Spacing of the leaves is far apart at the bottom, while at the top the leaves almost grow opposite each other. The flower, which is not showy, is characteristic of the aroid family and consists of an inflorescence called a spadix that is subtended by a spathe. Flowering is from midsummer to early autumn. Plant normally produces one or two inflorescences during its life time.

ZZ Plant tolerates neglect. It does not need frequent watering or feeding, tolerant to very low-light conditions. It appreciates a place in fairly bright light, even though it is more tolerant of than most other low-light plants. It shows high resistance to insects and diseases.

Zamioculcas zamiifolia prefer a well-drained soil, and appreciate a dilute solution of liquid fertilizer while the plant is in active growth. Large plants are easily divided, and this is the fastest way to get another plant. Each part of the plant is capable of regenerating itself. Cuttings root in water, or individual leaves can be stuck in well-drained potting mix where they can be expected to grow rhizomes and roots within a year. The stem of the plant is found underground as a tuberous rhizome.  The tuber is correctly known as the stem which  supports the petiole that supports the petiolules and leaflets. This underground tuber form, a crown with tuberous roots,  is the stem. The tubercles regularly develop at the juncture of the rachis and petiolule.  These leaflet tubercles allow the regeneration of a new plant.  

The petiole, rachis and petiolules are technically a part of a leaf or leaflet and during the wet season both the stem and petiole swell to store water as do other succulents. The majority of specimens sold in nurseries are not grown from seed, they produced in labotories by tissue culture. 

Use In Landscape: ZZ Plant is grown as an ornamental plant, mainly for its attractive glossy foliage. It can be kept outdoors as long as the temperature does not fall below around 12 °C. In temperate regions, it is grown as a houseplant. Over-watering may be fetal. Bright, indirect light is best for Zamioculcas zamiifolia, although it will tolerate very low light. Some sun will be tolerated.


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PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT November 2015



Sansevieria genus is belong to ''Asparagaceae'' family, covers approximately 70 species, indigenous to Africa, Arabia, and India. Several species and their cultivars are grown commercially for use as interior foliage plants. The genus name Sansevieria originates from that of Raimond de Sangro, the prince of Sanseviero. He was a faithful patron of horticulture in Italy during the 18th century. The specific ephitet trifasciata means three bundles.

Sansevierias are succulent plants, they have strong, plastic-like, succulent leaves that erupt right out of the ground from the roots or rhizomes. They have no stems. Flowers in summer or autumn. Flowers are whitish to pale yellow-green and some are nicely scented. Flowered plant will no longer produce new leaves but will continue to grow by producing plantlets via its rhizomes or stolons. Many species, are naturally variegated being banded, striped or mottled to varying degrees. Some have thin, flat, upright leaves while others have nearly cylindrical, arching or straight, spear-like leaves that end in sharp points. The leaves of Sansevieria are typically arranged in a rosette around the growing point, although some species are distichous. There is great variation in foliage form within the genus. All species can be divided into one of two basic categories based on their leaves: hard leaved and soft leaved species. Typically, hard leaved Sansevieria originate from arid climates, while the soft leaved species originate from tropical and subtropical regions.

There are around 130-140 species and cultivars of Sansevierias. Many of the cultivars are variegated forms and there are over 60 cultivars of Sansevieria trifasciata alone. Cultivars of Sansevierias divided three groups: normal full size, medium size with wide leaves and small (dwarf) size.

Sansevierias are succulent plants so need a well-drained compost and moderate watering. In the summer months they can be watered frequently and appreciate this, as long as the soil does not remain water-logged, but in the cooler months they should left dry. A minimum winter temperature of 10°C is recommended. They withstand short periods of light freeze as long as the plants are dry.

Sansevierias are difficult to keep in captivity as they always try to escape. Most spread through underground rhizomes. They can be propagated by cuttings or by dividing the rhizome. Cuttings have the disadvantage that the variegation will be lost. Plants can also be produced from seed although this is a slow process.

SANSEVIERIA TRIFASCIATA, MOTHER-IN-LAW'S TONGUE has up to 6 leaves per rosette. Mature leaves are dark green with light gray-green cross-banding, 70–90 cm long and 5–6 cm wide. Ultimate height is 100-150 cm. Numerous cultivars have been selected, many of them for variegated foliage with yellow or silvery-white stripes on the leaf margins. Popular cultivars include 'Compacta', 'Goldiana', 'Hahnii', 'Laurentii', 'Silbersee', and 'Silver Hahnii'. A variegated cultivar of Sansevieria trifasciata 'Laurentii', the most common species in cultivation.


SANSEVİERİA CYLİNDRİCA – YUVARLAK YAPRAKLI PAŞA KILICI vatanı Angoladır. 2-3 cm çapındaki yuvarlak yaprakları, 80-130 cm uzunluğa erişebilir. Yeşil renkli yapraklarının üzeri yuvarlak koyu yeşil renkli bandlar ile kaplıdır.

SANSEVİERİA GRANDİS - GENİŞ YAPRAKLI PAŞA KILICI Vatanı Somali’dir. Koyu yeşil renkli yaprakları 30 cm genişlik ve 50 cm yüksekliğe ulaşabilirler. Hızlı büyüyen bir türdür.

Peyzajda Kullanımı: Sansevieria’lar şiddetli don olmayan yörelerde, dış mekânda kullanılır. Kuraklığa ve ihmale dayanıklı olduklarından çok kullanılan bitkilerdir. Standart boylar, ilgi odağı olarak grup halinde, küçük kültürler, sukkulent bahçe düzenlemelerinde yer örtücü olarak kullanılabilir. Özellikle, saksı ve kaplarda dikilerek bahçe süslemesinde kullanılmaktadır.

NASA tarafından yapılan bir araştırmada, Sanseveria’ların azot oksitleri ve formaldehit gibi toksinleri absorbe ederek, oda havasının kalitesini en iyi düzenleyen bitkilerden biri olduğu anlaşılmıştır. Pothas (Epipremnum aureum), Drasena (Dracaena fragrans) gibi bitkiler de aynı şekilde havayı temizlemektedir. Sansevieria crassulacean asit metobolizması yoluyla, gece karbondioksit alarak havaya oksijen vermektedir. Bu özellik nedeni ile yatak odalarına konulmalarında bir engel yoktur, ancak yaprakları potansiyel olarak zehirli olabileceğinden, çocuk yatak odalarına konulmalıdırlar.







PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT October 2015


Plectranthus genus belong to Lamiaceae family, contains about 350 species of plant. The members of this genus are warm-climate plants, naturally occur in Africa, Madagascar, India, Indonesia and Australia. They are closely related to Solenostemon and are known as the Spur Flowers. The name plectranthus comes from the Greek words “plectron,” which means spur, and “anthos,” which means flower. The flowers of a plectranthus typically have a spur at the base.

Plectranthus 'Mona lavender' was bred by Roger Jaques, at the Kirstenbosch Botanical Garden in the late 1990s. Mona Lavender is a hybrid created by crossing Plectranthus saccatus which has very large lavender blooms, with Plectranthus hilliardiae, which has green leaves with purple backs. The plant expresses the parental traits of colorful leaves and large lavender blossoms.

Plectranthus 'Mona lavender' is a herbaceous, perennial shrub reaching up to 80-100 cm in height, forming a rounded, dense bush. It has dark green, glossy leaves with intensely purple undersides and sprays of lavender flowers dashed with purple markings. Striking lavender blooms open on a spike that stands above leaves.

Mona Lavender is a short day plant, which means that as days become shorter, the plants shift into flowering mode. In mild winter regions or at nurseries plants can flower steadily from autumn through spring. If it has been pinched regularly, flowering can be extended right into early summer.

Plectranthus 'Mona lavender' does very well in either shaded or partly sunny positions. When it receives sun it tends to stay smaller and more compact and the leaves exhibit a much more intense colouring. The brighter the light, the more intense the leaf coloring becomes both the green above and the purple beneath. It doesn't tolerate very cold conditions, although it does survive light frosts. The plants enjoy being pinched back to induce better branching and compactness.

Mona Lavender enjoys a rich soil with plenty of humus. It is quite a thirsty plant, so need water every few days to keep it fresh.

Use In Landscape

They make a great bedding plant and look good when they are planted en masse or as individuals in an existing bedding display. They also make good pot plants which can be moved around as needed. In planting beds, tuck plants into well-drained soil amended with organic matter. In containers, a soilless mix designed for use in pots is preferred. 

PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT September 2015


Adiantum capillus-veneris is a species of ferns in the genus Adiantum Fern which they all are belong to Pteridaceae Family (Syn. Adiantum capillus, Adiantum michelii, Adiantum modestum, Adiantum schaffneri)

Genus name of Adiantum means unwetted because their foliages repel water. Specific epithet comes from Latin meaning hair “capillus” of Venus “veneris” as reflected by the sometimes used common name of Venus Maidenhair Fern for this species.

Adiantum capillus-veneris is native throughout the world in tropical to temperate regions including North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia. It can be found at the moist, well-drained sandy, loamy or lime stones habitats, including rainforests.

Southern Maidenhair Fern is a deciduous, clumping fern with a drooping habit that grows up to 25-30 cm tall and slowly spreads by short creeping rhizomes. It features bipinnate to tripinnate fronds with wiry, black stems that are distinctively arching to pendent. Small pinnae, each 5-15 mm long, are fan shaped. Spores appear in summer on the reflexed pinnae under margins.

Adiantum capillus-veneris is fairly drought-tolerant, receding into summer dormancy if it dries out. If it goes dormant, stems should be trimmed, kept moist and placed in a shady protected spot to encourage new growth. It withstands -25˚C.

Southern Maidenhair Fern has a long history of medicinal use and was the main ingredient of a popular cough syrup called 'Capillaire', which remained in use until the nineteenth century. This plant is used medicinally by Native Americans but is little used in modern herbalism. The fresh or dried leafy fronds are antidandruff, antitussive, astringent, emetic, expectorant, galactogogue, laxative, stimulant. Externally, it is used as a poultice on snake bites, bee and insect stings.

Use in landscape: Adiantum capillus-veneris is suitable for growing outdoors in mild climates, or indoors in colder regions. As a popular garden fern and house plant is cultivated and widely available around the world. It is a choice species for the woodland garden, and traditional shade gardens. It is a demure plant that tends to seek shelter under or behind other plants. Its leaves are delicate and fan-shaped, creating a lacy effect. Also commonly used as an indoor houseplant. 



PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT August 2015


Bignonia capreolata is an evergreen vine commonly referred to as Crossvine. It is belong to Bignoniaceae family, Bignonia genus. Family name honors Jean P. Bignon, librarian in the court of King Louis XV. The species name capreolata, means having tendrils. The common name Crossvine refers to cross-shaped pattern revealed when the stem is cut (synonyms: Doxantha capreolata, Anisostichus capreolata, Anisostichus crucigera).

Bignonia capreolata is native to southeastern USA, from Maryland to Florida, and west to Missouri and Texas. Its opposite, compound leaves are bifoliate, usually 10-15 cm long and 5 cm wide. Leaves are glossy dark green in summer and reddish after frost.  Each leaf consists of a pair of lanceolate to oblong dark green leaflets and a branched tendril between them. In areas with mild winters Crossvine will keep its leaves during the winter. Unlike its cousin the Trumpet Creeper (Bignonia radicans or Campsis radicans), it climbs using tendrils, rather than the aerial roots that can sometimes harm a structure.

Bignonia capreolata produces flowers appear in late winter and early spring. Long tubular showy flowers are usually red on the outside, with a yellow interior and frequently have a mocha fragrance. Flowers are 5-7 cm long and borne in clusters of 2-5. The fruits are flattened pod-like pendants 12-20 cm long.

Crossvine tolerates poor soil and dry conditions. If planted in shade, it will scramble up any available structure or tree to find sunlight. They often climb very high, with leaves only remaining on the uppermost portion of the plant. It is hardy to -24˚C.

Bignonia capreolata reproduces by seeds or by shoots sprouting from the base of the plant. It is commercially available in several selections, but many beautiful variations have been discovered in the woods and brought into gardens. There are some cultivars of this species which have colors other than the maroon-orange of the wild plant. The varieties often seen include atrosanguinea (dark red) in color, Tangerine Beauty a blend of apricot and golden rust color, Helen Fredel a more yellow specimen.

The native Americans used Crossvine as a remedy for a number of physical conditions, including diphtheria, edema, headaches and rheumatism. In 2012, an indole alkaloid reserpine was found in Bignonia capreolata. Reserpine is an antipsychotic and antihypertensive drug that has been used for the control of high blood pressure and for the relief of psychotic symptoms,

Use in Landscape: As a vine, it is commonly used cover for fences, arbors, walls, pillars or large trellises. 







Amaryllis is a monotypic (only one species) genus containing Amaryllis belladonna. The Belladonna Lily is a native of South Africa. It is often confused with the Hippeastrum which is generally known as Amaryllis.

Hippeastrum is a genus composed of several species in contrast to Amaryllis which contain only one species. Hippeastrum genus is belong to South America, has 4-6 large flowers on a hollow stem, while Amaryllis belladonna has 2-12 smaller flowers on a solid stem. The name Amaryllis comes from "Amarella" for the bitterness of the bulb or ‘sparkling’ a beautiful shepherdess in Greek mythology. The specific epithet Belladonna means beautiful lady. Belladonna Lily is referred to as Naked Lady in the United States, and the Madonna Lily in Italy. The common name “Naked Lady” comes from the plant's pattern of flowering when the foliage has died down.

Amaryllis belladonna is a bulbous plant, each bulb can be reached 5–10 cm in diameter. It has several strap-shaped, green leaves, 30–50 cm long and 2–3 cm broad. The leaves of the Belladonna Lily are appearing in the autumn and die down by late spring. The bulb is then dormant until late summer. By this time, the bulb produces one or two, 40–60 cm tall naked stems, each of which bear a cluster of 2-12 trumpet-shaped, fragrant white, pink or purple flowers. The plant is quite frost resistant, the bulbs under the soil withstand -20 ˚C.

Amaryllis belladonna can also tolerate dry conditions, they are highly tolerant of drought and require little watering. Large clumps of bulbs can be divided from the mother bulb during dormant period. It reproduces by bulb division or seeds. Belladonna Lily was introduced into cultivation at the beginning of the eighteenth century. There is an Amaryllis belladonna hybrid which was bred in the 1800s in Australia. It is not known the exact species it was crossed with to produce color variations of white, cream, peach, magenta and nearly red hues. The hybrids were crossed back onto the original Belladonna Lily and with each other to produce naturally seed-bearing crosses that come in a very wide range of flower sizes, shapes, stem heights and intensities of pink.

Use in Landscape: In its natural habitat, Amaryllis belladonna is found in dense groups among rocks. Therefore, the best place to plant them would be in a rock garden. They can be grown between a ground cover or mixed border. Belladonna Lily can also be grown in large containers.







Genus Ceropegia that produces over 200 species of vining or shrub plants in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa. They can be evergreen or semi-evergreen, erect, climbing to trailing, usually succulent, perennials with opposite leaves. They have curiously shaped flowers in summer, sometimes followed by cylindrical fruits containing silky tufted seeds.

Ceropegia woodii is an evergreen succulent in the genus Ceropegia (Apocynaceae), native to South Africa and Zimbabwe. Its natural habitat may stretch as far north as Tanzania on mainland Africa and as far west in the Atlantic Ocean as the Canary Islands. The plant is also found in Madagascar. It is sometimes treated as a subspecies of the related Ceropegia linearis, as C. linearis subsp. woodii. Common names include Chain of Hearts, Rosary Vine, Hearts on a String.

The genus name Ceropegia, was given by Linneaus to describe his interpretation of the appearance of the flowers as fountains of wax, from the words keros, meaning wax, and pege meaning fountain. The species name honors John Medley Wood, who collected native African plants. Chain of Hearts is a caudiciform plant, having a swollen basal stem or root for water storage. It develops a woody caudex at its base as it matures. It is an evergreen tuberous perennial with long trailing stems to 1 m or more. Opposite heart shaped, leaves are 1-2 cm wide and long. Superficially resemble cyclamen leaves in shape and coloring, silver mottling on top, and green or purple undersides purple beneath.

Ceropegia woodii bloom primarily in the summer and fall, but flowers may appear sporadically at odd times throughout the year. Lantern shaped pink and purple tubular flowers 2 cm long. Its flowers can capture insects but these are not carnivorous plants. The five purple petals are fused at the tips, forming a cage-like canopy so the blossoms resemble a small inverted pink vase.

Chain of Hearts thrives in a well-drained sandy soil. It must dry out completely in between watering, as it will rot if over watered. It is dormant in winter and may droop. But take care not to add fertiliser at this point as it could also cause the plant to rot. Fertilize infrequently with half strength houseplant fertilizer when actively growing. It has few pests, but mealy bugs can be a problem. Ceropegia woodii is easily propagated from cuttings, from tubers produced at the base of the leaves or by seed.

Use in Landscape: Chain of Hearts is tender, in temperate regions it is a very popular houseplant, often grown in hanging baskets so the long trailing branches can hang down with their leaves spaced out like a row of large beads. But the stems can also be trained up a small trellis or topiary frame. Ceropegia woodii can be grown outdoors only in subtropical and tropical areas, with a minimum temperature of 10 °C. Partial shading is useful when the plant is grown outdoors. As it is drought tolerant, suitable for xeriscaping.





Clerodendrum is belong to Verbenaceae family. It is a genus of about 400 species of deciduous and evergreen trees, shrubs, and climbers mainly found in woodlands in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Africa and Asia.

Clerodendrum thomsoniae is a species of flowering plant in the genus Clerodendrum. Native to tropical West Africa, from Cameroon west to Senegal. It was named for William C. Thompson, who was a physician and missionary to Nigeria. This plant was very popular during the mid 19th century under the name "Beauty Bush". It is grown as an ornamental plant for its decorative two-coloured flowers. In temperate areas it requires shelter and a frost-free environment.

Bleeding Heart Vine is an evergreen liana growing up to 5 m tall, climbing without tendrils, suckers or root hairs, but rather by twining through and around its support. It has ovate to oblong leaves 8–12 cm long. The plant drops some of it leaves in winter. Blooms mostly from April to November in natural conditions of tropical climate. Also has few flowers even during the winter time. The flowers are produced in cymes of 8-20 together, each flower with a pure white to pale purple five lobed sepal 2,5 cm in diameter, and a crimson red five lobed corolla 1,5 cm long and in diameter.

Clerodendrum thomsoniae grows best with rich, sandy soil that is kept moist. It is a heavy feeder and it is advised to use a fertilizer that contains calcium for best results. If grown indoors, a winter rest period is advised. Fort this, it should move to a cooler area, cut back on water and fertilizer until spring. It can be pruned closely in late winter or early spring, as it blooms on the new season's growth. Bleeding Heart Vine is a thirsty plant, a mature plant may require several litters of water a week during active growth. Happiest in bright light, may be grown in partial shade. Best results occur with morning sun and afternoon shade. The showy white sepals with dark red corolla make this plant a show stopper. Needs some type of support to grow on. Clerodendrum thomsoniae can be increase by replanting suckers or rooting semi-ripe tip cuttings. Quickest results can be obtained from root cuttings taken in winter.

Use in Landscape: Outside the tropics, Bleeding Heart Vine is usually grown in containers so it can be protected when temperatures fall below 4 °C. It can be kept pruned into a shrub, or given support and allowed to scramble like a vine. This vine like shrub does not spread as much as some, and is thus a good choice for a restricted support like a doorway arch or container trellis. Actually it is not such a good candidate to cover a fence or arbor. Clerodendrum thomsoniae is among the world's most beautiful flowers.

PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT April 2015

Yuccas are belong to Asparagaceae family (formerly Agavaceae). They can be evergreen perennials, shrubs or trees, with dense or loose rosettes of stiff, sword-shaped leaves and tall panicles of bell-shaped flowers. There are about 40 species and 30 subspecies of yucca, all of them are belong to New World. Although they live in tropics and subtropics, many of them are very hardy and some withstand -30°C.

Yucca gloriosa is a species of yuccas in the family Asparagaceae. It is native to subtropical southeastern USA from the Outer Banks of Virginia and North Carolina to Florida and Alabama. Yucca gloriosa grows on sand dunes along the often together with Yucca aloifolia and a variety called Y. gloriosa var. tristis. In contrast to Y. gloriosa, Tristis varieties leaves are softer, recurvated and wider than usual gloriosa.

Soft Tipped Yucca is an evergreen shrub. The plant is known to grow to height 4 meters. It is caulescent, usually with several stems arising from the base, the base thickening in adult specimens. The long narrow leaves are straight and very stiff, growing to 30–50 cm long and 3-4 cm wide. They are dark green with entire margins, smooth, rarely finely denticulate, acuminate, with a sharp brown terminal spine. Inflorescence is a panicle up to 250 cm long, of bell-shaped white flowers, sometimes tinged purple or red. Fruit is a leathery, elongate berry up to 8 cm long.

Yucca gloriosa is widely cultivated in warm temperate and subtropical climates, and valued as an architectural focal point. In a domestic environment, the plant has average water requirements, and little maintenance is needed other than the removal of dead leaves when the shrub nears its ultimate height. The plant is very hardy, without leaf damage at -20 °C. but is subject to injury and decay by winter damp and snow. Leaf ends are less sharp than those of the similar Yucca aloifolia.

Soft Tipped Yucca thrives in sandy, well-drained soil, in heat, full sun, also withstand in shade. Propagation is done by seeds, clump divisions or stem cuttings. Established plants are very drought resistant. The plant tolerates maritime exposure as well. Plants do not flower every year, requiring hot summers to initiate flowering. The flowers are produced in the autumn contrast to most of the yuccas which they flower in spring. The scent of the flowers is most pronounced at night. In the plants native environment, its flowers can only be pollinated by a certain species of moth. This moth cannot live in Turkiye and, if fruit and seed is required, hand pollination is necessary. A range of selected cultivars are available in the horticultural trade, including forms with variegated leaves, Yucca gloriosa variegata is one of the well known.

Yucca gloriosa has been known to cause skin irritation and even allergic reactions upon contact. The leaf points are also sharp enough to break the skin.

Use in landscape: Excellent for xeriscaping. Grown as architectural specimens in a border or courtyard, or in containers. Can be used as accent plant, tropical effect containers and large planters.  It is one of the popular yuccas, often used as a houseplant, valued for its relatively smooth soft leaves.

PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT March 2015

Yuccas are belong to Asparagaceae family (formerly Agavaceae). They can be evergreen perennials, shrubs or trees, with dense or loose rosettes of stiff, sword-shaped leaves and tall panicles of bell-shaped flowers. There are about 40 species and 30 subspecies of yucca, all of them are belong to New World. Although they live in tropics and subtropics, many of them are very hardy and some withstand -30°C.

Yucca baccata is belong to Asparagus FamilyAsparagaceae” generally described as a perennial shrub. Datil Yucca is a common species of yucca, native to the deserts of the southwestern United States (California, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Utah) and northwestern Mexico. It is also seen in the wild in Colombia.

Yuck-ka is a Caribbean name for the cassava plant, which originally was named Yucca gloriosa. The specific epithet "baccata" means "fruited," refering to the plant’s large fruits. Yucca Baccata is also called Banana Yucca, gets its common name from its banana shaped large fruits. In wet years, when many yuccas bloom over the landscape, they resemble large snowy-white candles, so the plants also be called "Our Lord's Candles" as well.

Yucca baccata is recognized by having 40–100 cm long, 3-5 cm wide, grey-green leaves and short or non existent trunks. It flowers in the spring, starting in March to July. Leaves are retained year to year. The Banana Yucca has a short life span relative to most other plant species and a moderate growth rate. At maturity, the typical plant will reach up to 150-200 cm high, and 500cm wide.

Yucca baccata has very short stems, which may occur singly or clumped together. Leaves are arranged spirally at the base of the stem. Individual white fibers along the leaf margins tend to curl. The flower stalk is 80–120 cm high, rise above the leaves. Bell-shaped flowers, which grow in thick clusters during the spring, are creamy white in color. Each flower has six perianth segments and three stigmas on a stout pistil. The fruits are large, 10-20 cm long, and fleshy at maturity. The pods contain flat, blackish seeds.

Banana Yucca is hardy to -29°C, likes full sun to light shade, it is very tolerant to neglect, does not need much water. Propagation is done by seeds or dividing offsets.

The native American’s at Southwest USA utilized the Banana Yucca for food. The fleshy fruits were eaten green or dried and stored for winter consumption. The young flower stalks were also eaten, like asparagus. From the yucca leaf came fibers to make cordage. These were used for belts, rope ladders, fishnets, mats, sandal, clothing and baskets. The saponin-rich roots create a soap like lather which can be used in cleaning.

The nocturnal yucca, or pronuba moth has a special relationship with the yucca, so special, in fact, that there is a specific pollinating moth species for each yucca species. The moth rolls pollen into a small ball and transfers it from plant to plant. While pollinating the flower, the female lays her eggs in the plant's ovary.

Landscape Usage: Low clumping accent plant in well draining soil, full or part shade. Specially used in rock gardens, and dry gardens.

PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT February 2015

Yucca guatemalensis is a Yucca species that is native to eastern part of Mexico and Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua.

It lacks spines at end of the leaves, typical of most yuccas hence the common name Spineless Yucca. With age the trunk becomes rough and thick, and when mature, it develops a swollen base and often new stems from the base at ground level. Swollen base looks like an elephant’s foot, so plant is also called Elephant Foot Yucca.

Yucca guatemalensis can grow up to 8-10 m in height, with a spread to 5 m. It normally have a thick, single trunk or be multi trunked resulting from a thickened, trunk-like lower base. Sometimes after blooming 2-3 branch forms at near the top and makes a nice umbrella shape. The leaves are strap-like, shiny green, to 1 m long and about 7 cm wide, spineless with serrated margins. The selection, 'Variegata' has leaves with creamy yellow margins. Like other yuccas, this one has white bell shaped flowers borne on tall stalks above the foliage in summer. After white flowers are produced in summer, followed by brown, fleshy fruits which are oval and up to 2,5 cm long. The flower petals are edible.

Spineless Yucca can be grown in a variety of soils and is drought-tolerant. Young plants are occasionally used as houseplants. It is moderately tolerant of salt spray and salty soils. Also tolerates full sun to shade. Plants are subject to root rot if overwatered. Leaf spot may affect the appearance of the leaves, but it does not affect the health of the plant. Propagation is by suckers, cuttings or seed. Yucca guatemalensis 'Silver Star', Yucca guatemalensis Jevel' are well known variegated forms of Spineless Yucca.

Landscape Use: Yucca guatemalensis is one of the tallest of the yuccas, and is often used as a framing specimen at the side of a building or along a walkway. It makes a striking presence in large landscapes, but may be too much for a small yard. Since they lack the sharp spines of other yuccas, Spineless Yucca’s are harmless and can be used where most others cannot. They are grown in containers and sometimes seen in indoor malls. This handsome tropical looking yucca can be used as an accent in a gravelly succulent garden, but realize it will get large.


PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT January 2015

There are about thirty species and variety of Genus Aspidistra belong to, family Liliaceae. These plants are slow growing, evergreen, rhizomatous, perennial herbs native to East Asia. They have simple leaves with smooth margins and parallel veins.

The well known species is Aspidistra elatior. It is native to Taiwan and islands in southern Japan. The specific epithet elatior is derived from elat meaning exalted, lofty, high and ior meaning more so, to a greater degree.

Aspidistra elatior is well known in cultivation and has a reputation for withstanding neglect, giving rise to its common name of Cast Iron Plant. It is tolerant of low light, low humidity, temperature fluctuation and irregular watering. It is best situated in a position away from direct sun to avoid leaf bleaching. Good drainage is also required for optimal growth and to avoid root rot. 

Aspidistra elatior is a perennial which grows in wild up to 60 cm height and width. Originally it is a forest plant, has dark green, leathery leaves 40-60 cm long including petiole (leaf stalk) and 13 cm wide, which rise from a creeping rhizomatous rootstock, lying half buried in the potting mixture. The long, lance shaped, glossy, dark green leaves grow directly from a number of short stalks.  8 lobed cream flowers with maroon colouring on the inner surface, borne in early summer at soil level, but these are often hidden by the foliage. 

Cast Iron Plant widely grown as a house plant. It can also be grown successfully outdoors in shade in temperate climates, where plants will generally cope with temperatures down to -5 °C. It is preferred for its durability and ability to survive under adverse conditions: low light, high heat, poor soil, and drought.  

Aspidistra elatior is tolerant of a wide range of soils and potting media as long as they are well-drained. Once established, it is tolerant of droughty conditions but prosper under evenly moist conditions. It is moderately salt tolerant. Cast Iron Plants appear to transplant well starting from almost any size including single rhizome nodes. Although they may be kept in dark corners and other poorly lit positions, they will produce little growth there, whereas they thrive in medium light for instance, at a sunless window.

Aspidistra elatior propagate by dividing overcrowded clumps in the spring. Each piece of rhizome should carry at least two leaves and several pieces may be planted together in a pot.

Leaves of the Cast Iron Plant are reportedly non-toxic and extremely long-lasting. They make good linear materials in floral arrangements. For cut foliage use, Aspidistra elatior leaves are harvested with clippers and are frequently bundled ten per bunch. Vase life is very long, stems of Aspidistra will last in arrangements for a month or longer.

There are some cultivars. Well known one is A. elatior 'variegata' has similarly sized leaves that are irregularly marked with light green and white streaks.

Landscape Use: Cast Iron Plants are commonly used as ground covers in shade gardens since they can tolerate light to very heavy shade. They cannot tolerate full sunlight but can tolerate drought and competition from tree roots. Aspidistra elatior can also be used as accent, edging, or container plants. Old leaves will need to be pruned out periodically. Initial spacings for landscape plantings are 30-50 cm.