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PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT December 2011

Imperata genus of 6 species of perennials, found throughout from East and South Asia to Australia. They are belong to family of Poaceae. They live at areas from tempate to tropical climate.  



Imperata cylindrica ”rubra” is a species of grass in the genus Imperata. It is also called Bloody Grass, because of the bright red color of the leaves.

Japanese Bloodgrass may reach to 50 cm high and 30 cm in diameter. Need full sun to partial shade. It can withstand to -20˚C degree, they prefer soils rich of organic material. In cold areas, grass should be cut from soil level, and covered with some mulching material at winter time.

The flowers of Imperata cylindrica “rubra” are not showy. They are silver coloured and seen on long spikes at summer time. Propagation can be done by dividing rhizomes at spring. Japanese Bloodgrass normally seen red in upper 2/3 of the leaves and green at the lower 1/3. Red-green colour gives the plant an interesting and attractive view.

In landscaping Imperata cylindrica ”rubra” is useful in a mixed grass border. If used with green, silver or blue coloured plants a nice contrary effect obtained. In landscaping they are often planted with Carex morrowii variegata, Festuca ovina glauca, Stipa tenuissima, Setaria palmefolia, Scirpus cernuus in beds. Also can be used as a second plant row, in front of long grasses like Phormium, Penisetum, Miscanthus, Cortaderia, Cymbopogon. Japanese Bloodgrass should be planted in groups for a sharper visual effect. If it is used in containers, large circular or rectangle shaped pots are preferred. Within pots can be used in separation or to direct the public in trade centers, pastry shops or restaurants.  

PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT November 2011

Lotus genus of about 150 species of annuals, short_lived perennials, or semi evergreen subshrubs, found throughout most of the world. Some are frost resistant, others are not.

Lotus berthelotii is in the genus Lotus. Parrot's beak, a perennial plant, endemic to the Canary Islands. This plant is either extinct in the wild or persists as a few individuals. Lotus berthelotii has a creeping or trailing habit. Leaves divided into 3-5 slender leaflets, each leaflet 1-2 cm long and 1-2 mm broad, densely covered with fine silvery hairs. The flowers are orange-red with yellow splashes, pea flower-shaped, 2-4 cm long and 5-8 mm broad. Flowers all summer, peak flowering period is end of the spring, and beginning of the summer. Although Parrot's beak only grows to a height of around 20 cm, the plant trails can be 60-80 cm wide.

The flowers of Lotus berthelotii and some other Canary Island species appear to be adapted for bird pollination. It was once thought that the original pollinators of these plants were sunbirds which had become extinct on the Canary Islands, explaining why they are rare and considered endangered species. However more recent work has shown that these plants are adequately pollinated by non-specialist flower visiting birds

Parrot's beak is cultivated in the horticulture trade and widely available as an ornamental plant with its needle-like silvery foliage and red flowers for traditional gardens, container, and drought tolerant water conserving gardens. It should be planted 50-60 cm apart when grown as ground cover. A golden orange flowering cultivar is also grown.

PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT October 2011

Cestrum nocturnum is a tender evergreen shrub, native to the subtropical climates of Mexico, Central America, the West Indies and Cuba. It is not a true Jasmine, but is in fact a member of the same family as tomatoes and peppers.  

Night-blooming Jasmine can quickly form a mound of foliage up to 2–3 meter high, and 1–2 meter across. This plant has long, slender, arching branches springing densely from the base. All parts of the plant are poisonous, and its fragrance can be overwhelming to some people, especially those with allergies.

Clusters of slender, pale green-white flowers appear in late summer and autumn, strongly and sweetly perfumed at night but scentless during the day. The flowers are followed by berries that are green at first but a glossy china white when ripe in early winter.

Propagation Is from seed or from herbaceus stem cuttings. Cestrum nocturnum is sensitive to frost, it only can stand -4˚C for a short period.

In landscape is useful in a mixed shrub border. The fragrance is most noticeable at night, intelligence gardeners strategically place this plant where the scent can be enjoyed in the evening.

PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT September 2011

Musella lasiocarpa is a great plant for a tropical effect in cooler climate zones. It is not a true banana, but a banana relative, and has a smaller, shrub-like form. It can produce a large, lotus-shaped, waxy yellow flower that will remain in bloom for six months.

Chinese Yellow Banana comes from high altitudes (to a frosty 2800 m) in the Yunnan Province in China. Botanists with a working knowledge of Yunnan and Musella think that it may be extinct in the wild and maintained only in cultivation by farmers in Yunnan and Sichuan. Its flower is known as the Golden Lotus Flower, a sacred flower in local Buddhism.

The maximum height of the Musella lasiocarpa is only about 1,5 m, half of which is a very stout, conical trunk, which is then topped by a crown of handsome, slightly glaucous, broad leaves. Leaves held rather stiffly upright, glaucous green with reddish-brown margins. From early age, the rhizome of Chinese Yellow Banana produces many suckers. The inflorescence, which is big and bright yellow, appears in its second or third year if it is grown from seed. Flower grows upright at the top of the trunk. As the inflorescence grows in size, tiny bananas begin to appear under each bract, which curls back to reveal the fruits. Unfortunately inedible, the 5 cm long bananas each contain dozens of small, shiny, brown-black seeds.

The seeds of Musella lasiocarpa requires cool stratification (about 4°C, more than 6 weeks) but then germinates easily, and subsequent seedling growth is, as you might expect, very fast. Musella appreciates heavy watering and feeding and a place in full sun. It will flourish in all climates from cool tropical down to temperate, where it will be found to be root hardy, enduring even cold winters with its underground rhizome, just like well known hardy bananas. It also makes a perfect conservatory plant.

In landscape, may be used as an accent plant, or in front of the long banana trees as a second line shrub. Also can be used in groups. In cold areas like as Ankara, plant should be kept in a container, and not to leave outside at winter.

PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT August 2011

Clerodendrum bungei: Rose Glory Bower, Mexican Hydrangea

Genus of about 400 species of deciduus and evergreen trees, shrubs, and climbers, mainly found in woodland in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Africa and Asia. They are cultivated for their nice flowers.  The leaves are arranged in whorls or opposite pairs. The shrubs are suitable for a warm border. Train the climbers over a trellis, pergola or other support. In frost-prone areas, grow half-hardy and frost-tender species in a warm greenhouse or conservatory.

Rose Glory Bower is a deciduous shrub that spreads aggressively by sending up suckers all around itself. Clerodendrum bungei is native to China and northern India The invasive nature of Rose Glory Bower has allowed it to become established in numerous areas throughout South America, Mexico, Florida and other southern states of USA.

The upright, minimally branched, shoots can get 100–120 cm tall and sometimes they can reach a height of 200 cm. Oval shaped leaves, to 20 cm long, with long petioles and coarse marginal teeth. The leaves have a strong unpleasant smell. The rose colored flowers are in rounded clusters 20 cm across and carried above the leaves. Individual flowers are funnel shaped with five spreading petal-like lobes. The flowers are very fragrant and last from summer until first frost. In winter, the upright stems, mostly devoid of branches, are not very attractive and may appear to be dead.

Propagation: Propagation of glory bower is easy. Tip cuttings root readily. Suckers can be dug up and repositioned. Pieces of root can be dug up and replanted. Or you can just wait a few weeks and it will probably propagate itself all over the place.

Usage in Landscapes
Use Rose Glory Bower in well defined areas, otherwise it will surely spread. As withstands -10˚C cold, can be used at any town at coastal areas in Turkiye.  Also it can be kept in containers. Once incarcerated, Clerodendrum bungei is a beautiful landscape flower and one that attracts butterflies.



Polygala is a genus which covers more than 500 species, all around the world. Polygala is an old Greek name from the words polys meaning much and gala meaning milk, the name given to this genus for some of its members which have the reputation for promoting the secretion of milk at human and some mammals. They include annuals, perennials and some shrubs. Two biggest sepal of pea like flowers are rose purple, petal like and known as wings. The keel terminates in crown –like tuft that is characteristic of polygalas. They need light, well drained soil in a sunny or part shaded spot. They are suitable for pot culture. To keep the growt dence, prune any straggly stems after the main flowering has finished.

Polygala virgata is one of the beautiful species belonging to the Polygalaceae family also commonly known as the milkwort family. This charming slender shrub, bearing spikes of bright purple magenta winged flowers is an eye-catcher in any garden. It has a wide distribution and occurs both in Tropical and East Africa, southwards through Natal, Transvaal, into the Cape as far as George. Growing in the Drakensberg it is found at an altitude of 250 to 1800 m.

Purple Broom is an erect, evergreen shrub and grows to a height of 2,0 to 2,5 m. A single stem is formed at the base of the plant and slender hairless branches occur at the top. The leaves are narrow in shape, dark green with a velvety texture and 10 mm in length. Simple leaves are alternately arranged on younger branches and usually drops before flowering. Racemes of deep purple magenta flowers are borne at the ends of branches. The flowers look similar to that of a pea family Fabaceae, but are different. The flower is enclosed by 2 large purple bonnet-like bracts and streaked with darker veins. These open to show that the flower has a purple tuft of tiny hairs at the top of the lower keeled petal. The outer two petals surround the lowest petal like a bonnet. The fruit is a two-celled capsule and the seed is small, black and oval shaped.

Polygala virgata is a fast growing, hardy shrub and can be grown in any garden in Mediterrenean climate. Once established in the garden will tolerate drought, wind and some frost. With its beautiful sprays of flowers it will be an accent plant in a shrubby garden or rockery. Planted in good enriched soil in a sunny or semi-shade position in the garden. It requires water once established to encourage rapid and healthy growth. The shrub is a buzz with bees, insects and bumblebees attracted to the bright purple magenta flowers.

Purple Broom is a fast growing, hardy shrub and can be grown in any garden in South Africa or in Mediterrenean climate countries. Once established in the garden will tolerate drought, wind and some frost. With its beautiful sprays of flowers it will be an accent plant in a shrubby garden or rockery. Planted in good enriched soil in a sunny or semi-shade position in the garden. It requires water once established to encourage rapid and healthy growth.

The Polygala virgata is self-seeding and small seedlings appear around the parent plant after the first flowering season. These seedlings can be transplanted easily. Individual plants are fairly short-lived, but can be easily replaced with seedlings. Purple Broom is easily grown from seed during autumn to spring.


Polygala is a genus which covers more than 500 species, all around the world. Polygala is an old Greek name from the words polys meaning much and gala meaning milk, the name given to this genus for some of its members which have the reputation for promoting the secretion of milk at human and some mammals. They include annuals, perennials and some shrubs. Two biggest sepal of pea like flowers are rose purple, petal like  and known as wings. The keel terminates in crown –like tuft that is characteristic of polygalas. They need light, well drained soil in a sunny or part shaded spot. They are suitable for pot culture. To keep the growt dence, prune any straggly stems after the main flowering has finished.

Myrtle-leaf milkworth is a common, widespread pioneer shrub with pretty mauve flowers on and off throughout the year with a peak in spring. The species name myrtifolia means myrtle-like leaves. Polygala myrtifolia varies in form as it changes to adapt to the different areas it grows in, from the harshness of the coast to the drier inland climates. An evergreen shrub, reach about 1,5–2,0 m in height with a few upright-growing stems and slender branches densely covered with leaves that resemble myrtle. The oval-shaped leaves are usually 25–50 mm long and up to 13 mm wide. The leaves are light green, dark green or slightly grey. Some forms of P. myrtifolia have thin, needle-like leaves. It can also grow into a small tree reaching almost 4 m high.

The buds are green, flat, marked with dark veins and oval to half-moon-shaped. The lower buds open first. The flowers are carried in small clusters at the ends of short branches and look a bit like legume (pea) flowers, but are actually quite different. Close inspection will reveal that although they have two wings and a keel, they lack the banner (also called standard) petal. The showy petals, beautifully marked with darker veins, are usually in shades of mauve or purple, but can also be pink scarlet, or white. Polygala myrtifolia has blooms throughout the year with a peak in spring when the plants flower profusely. The fruit is a small, winged capsule. Myrtle-leaf milkworth can easily be propagated from seed and tip cuttings preferably taken in spring and autumn

Use in landscape: Myrtle-leaf milkworth is an attractive evergreen shrub able to adapt to most gardens and gardeners. A tough shrub suitable for coastal gardens, low maintenance and water-wise gardens. In the new garden it is excellent as a fast growing windbreak, hedge and colourful shrub able to grow in most soil types from full sun to semi-shade. Its growth is a bit more lax, producing fewer flowers in the shade. As mentioned, there are different forms of Polygala myrtifolia. At Kirstenbosch a beautiful, white-flowering form called P. myrtifolia 'White Feathers' have been selected. Polygala myritifoliabibi pink” is a small variety which is suitable o use as a container plant.


Pontederia is a genus of five species found growing in the wild on the margins of freshwater streams and ponds in North, Central and South America. The name ‘Pontederia’ derives from Guilio Pontedero who was a student at Padua University in the 17th century. The plant is grown for its striking leaves and beautiful flowers, which are usually blue but can also be white.

Pontederia cordata would seem to have obtained the ‘cordata’ in its name from the heart shape of the bases of its leaves. Pontederia is grown from Nova Scotia in Canada down to Florida as a marginal plant in water features, or as a bog plant. It does not have a central trunk but each leaf appears on its own long stem. The dark green shiny leaves are lance-like then widen out in the middle to form a heart shaped top. In summer and early autumn flower stems produce masses of blue flowers.  

Pontederia cordata is extremely frost hardy and grows in 20 – 25cm depth of water. It reaches a height of 1 – 1.5m, and one plant will multiply and spread to a breadth of around 1m. Pontederia cordata ‘alba is the white flowering plant which, apart from the flower colour, is identical to its purple counterpart in all aspects of development.

Propagation is from seed or from splitting established plants in the spring.

In landscaping this plant with its shiny, dark green leaves and lovely long stemmed blue flowers, is a plant of choice for any water feature or bog garden. Pontederia, is cheap and easy to grow, withstands frost and other abnormal conditions and thrives in water up to 25cm in depth.  All of this makes it a guaranteed success when used as a marginal water or bog plant.


PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT April 2011

Euphorbias are members of one of the largest plant families: the Euphorbiaceae.  This family contains 300 species and around 7,500 varieties.  The Euphorbia species alone includes about 2000 varieties: annuals, biennials, perennials, grasses, shrubs and trees.  Some of these have succulent type leaves, some are deciduous, others evergreen; some are extremely hardy whilst others are tropical and very tender.  In fact the most interesting thing about Euphorbias is the amazing range of plant forms they display, especially in terms of size; conditions in which they grow: tolerance for heat and water needs; and the varying lengths of time for which any individual plant can live. Most euphorbias contain a milky liquid but sometimes this can be colourless.  

Euphorbia marginata, or Snow-On-The-Mountain, is an erect annual native from Minnesota to Colorado and Texas. The light green leaves are ovate to oblong, 1 – 3 inches (2,5 – 7,5cm) long. With broad variegated margins, the plants are conspicuous in the landscape, usually between 2 – 4 feet in height with a single stem. The latex they contain is corrosive to the skin and may cause severe burns or dermatitis. As with all members of the Euphorbiaceae, plant parts should be handled with care, especially when sap is showing.

Plants flower in early autumn; the flowers (actually inflorescences and their showy bracts) form small white cups, known as cyathia, at the top and center of the plant. White and green bracts provide the colouring. Snow-On-The-Mountain makes a long lasting cut flower if the cut end is seared or dipped in boiling water.

Euphorbia marginata need full sun to partial shade, with a well-drained soil mix. They are not particular about the soil. The plants should be well watered and be allowed to dry before watering again. The plants are native to poor soils and do not need fertilizer or excessive water. Too much water or fertilizer will provide lush growth but at the expense of flowers. Euphorbia marginata are propagated from seed. Seed should be sown where you want the plants to grow.

Snow-On-The-Mountain when used in landscaping they are often planted with dahlias, mums and other autumn flowering plants. Whether grown in containers or in beds in the garden, they are very showy.

PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT March 2011

Ricinus belong to  Euphorbiaceae family. Ricinus communis is the only member of the species. Castor Bean plants are native to northeastern Africa and west Asia. Bean seeds have been found in Egyptian tombs dating back thousands of years.

Ricinus communis is very fast growing, mound forming, suckering, monoecious, evergreen shrub, widely naturalized in wasteland, at roadsides. Castor Oil Plant grows up to 10 m tall. In its first year, it grows to 1-5m tall and perishes during autumn frosts. It is grown throughout the world as an annual plant or evergreen shrub or tree in tropical climates.The root system consists of a well-developed taproot that reaches depth of 3–4 m. Castor Oil Plant erect, branching shrub,  with alternate, very broadly ovate deeply 5 to 12 lobed, toothed, glossy, midgreen, reddish purple, or bronze-red leaves 15-40cm long.

Inflorescences are racemes 60–80 cm long, located on the ends of branches. Male flowers occupy lower part of the raceme; female flowers occupy the upper part; all are apetalous. Fruits are spherical or oblong pods, 2–3 cm across, usually with prickles, three-celled, with 1 seed in each cell. Seeds are 8–20 mm across, oval, gray to dark red with gray or other color mosaic.

Ricinus communis is a thermophilic plant, suffers from frosts. Shoots perish at temperatures below -1°C; adult plants die at temperatures below -3°C. Temperatures should not fall below 20–25°C to ensure normal plant development. It withstands some drought. Vegetative period (from shoot emergence to maturing of first raceme) lasts 100–150 days.

Castor Oil Plant has several widely known uses, grown as a rodent repellent, or grown for its derivatives, the toxin known as Ricin and the dreaded castor oil. The beans are most definitely toxic to humans and animals. Care should be taken when handling them, don't allow young children or pets in their vicinity without close supervision. The principal toxin is an  albumin, called ricin. The seeds contain 2,8–3% toxic substances, 3–20 seed killing a man, 4 a rabbit, 5 a sheep, 6 an ox or  a horse, 7 a pig, 11 a dog, but 80 for cocks and ducks. However, the effectiveness of this plant at poisoning or driving out moles, gophers or other tunneling animals is probably more hype than fact.

However, it produces immunizing activity, producing in small doses an antitoxin analagous to that produced against bacteria. Castor beans are pressed to extract castor oil which is used for medicinal purposes. Ricin does not partition into the oil because it is water-soluble, therefore, castor oil does not contain ricin.

Castorbean is cultivated for the seeds which yield a fast-drying, non-yellowing oil, used mainly in industry and medicines. Oil used in coating fabrics and other protective coverings, in the manufacture of high-grade lubricants, transparent typewriter and printing inks, in textile dyeing. Dehydrated oil is an excellent drying agent which compares favorably with tung oil and is used in paints and varnishes. Hydrogenated oil is utilized in the manufacture of waxes, polishes, carbon paper, candles and crayons. 'Blown Oil' is used for grinding lacquer paste colors, and when hydrogenated and sulfonated used for preparation of ointments. Castor Oil Pomace, the residue after crushing, is used as a high-nitrogen fertilizer. Although it is highly toxic due to the ricin, a method of detoxicating the meal has now been found, so that it can safely be fed to livestock.

Many varieties have been cultivated and 'Carmencita' is one of the most attractive with bold foliage and bright red flowers.

PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT February 2011

Neomarica is a genus of 16 species of plants in family Iridaceae, native to tropical regions of western Africa, and Central and South America. The genus name is derived from the Greek words neo, meaning "new", and Marica, “the Roman nymph”. Walking iris has evergreen foliage. The foliage is similar to that of an iris and flowers may be white, yellow or blue. After flowering, the flower spikes lean to the ground and develop plantlets at the end, allowing the plant to quickly colonize a small area.

Neomarica Gracilis - Walking Iris

Neomarica gracilis is from Mexico and Costa Rica south to Brazil. This species is sometimes called the "Walking Iris" but this name may also be used for some of the other species.

Neomarica gracilis is a herbaceous plant with leaves about one foot tall. Flower spikes stand above the foliage. It has short lived ivory flowers with reddish-brown transverse bars on the claw. The inner segments are smaller with reflexed tips and blue. It blooms in late spring and early summer and appreciates shade. After pollination, the new plantlet appears where the flower emerged and the stalk continues to grow longer. The weight of the growing plantlet causes the stalk to bend toward the ground, allowing the new plantlet to root away from its parent. This is how it obtained the common name of "Walking Iris". The other common name "Apostle Plant" comes from the belief that the plant will not flower until the individual has at least 12 leaves, the number of apostles of Jesus.

It has leaves with prominent veins and a stem that is forked below the apex. It is distinguished from other white flowered species, bearing its flowers on long (gracile) peduncles. The flowers emerge from what appears to be just another leaf, but is really a flower stalk structured to look like the other leaves.

They grow in shade in subtropical areas in the wild. They come from regions where the soils are extremely well drained (they can also be found in a thick layer of forest debris). Such soils are red, acid, high in iron and aluminum and notoriously low in "normal" nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, etc. This is not a water Iris, be careful
not to overwater.

Propagation can be done by dividing rhizomes or offsets.

Neomarica gracilis is not known in Türkiye also not commonly seen in other countries. But it is a great pass-along plant, a special group of plants that persist in our homes and gardens because they are tough, easily propagated and interesting enough to merit care.

The delicate flowers last only a day but the plant continues to form new blooms for long periods of time during late spring months. Makes also an excellent houseplant.

PEYZAJDA 4. BOYUT January 2011

Odontonema strictum is belong to Acanthaceae family. Firespike is native to open, semi-forested areas in Central America.  It has escaped cultivation and become established in disturbed hammocks in several areas in peninsular of Florida.

Odontonema strictum is a showy, attractive, compact evergreen shrub with sparse, stiff branches that grow mostly straight up to about 150-200cm tall. It has shiny dark green leaves with wavy margins and long pointed tips. The leaves are oblong, arranged opposite each other on the stem, and 10–15 cm long. From autum through winter firespike produces abundant 20–30cm upright panicles of brilliant red tubular flowers. The individual flowers are about 2cm long and two-lipped.

Firespike do best if planted in partial shade with a rich well-drained soil but also does well in full sun. Once established it can tolerate all but the longest droughts. Established plants should be watered even if it hasn't rained for more than two or three weeks.

In frost-free areas Odontonema strictum grows as an evergreen semi-woody shrub. In zones 8 and 9 it usually dies back to the ground in winter and resprouts in spring.

Propagation: Softwood cuttings are very easy to root, and they will bloom in their first year.

Use in landscape: The strikingly beautiful crimson flowers and shiny leaves of firespike brighten the fall landscape. Plant firespike in mixed shrub borders. It will spread by underground sprouting, enlarging to form a thicket, but it is easy to control and keep contained. Firespike is a must-have for subtropical and hot temparete butterfly and hummingbird gardens.